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Germination was described as an approximate percen


Germination was described as an approximate percentage of phase dark spores after screening of microscopic slides by phase contrast microscopy (100 x). Experiments were performed in duplicate on two individual spore batches and repeated at least twice. DNA sequencing and bioinformatics DNA sequencing was performed by GATC Biotech (Konstanz, Germany) or Source BioScience (Nottingham, United Kingdom). The genomic sequence of B. licheniformis DSM13 [48] was accessed at http://​www.​ncbi.​nml.​nih.​gov [GenBank: AE017333]. Acknowledgements and Funding We would like to thank Kristin O’Sullivan (Norwegian School of selleck chemicals llc Veterinary Science, Oslo, Norway) for technical assistance and Dr Graham Christie (University of Cambridge, England) for sharing the pHT315 vector. The pMAD plasmid was a gift from Michel Débarbouillé (Institut Pasteur, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Paris, France). The work has been financially supported by the Research Council of Norway (grant 178299/I10). References 1. DMXAA Setlow P: Spore germination. Curr Opin Microbiol 2003, 6:550–556.PubMedCrossRef 2. Moir A, Smith DA: The genetics of bacterial

spore Selleckchem Lonafarnib germination. Ann Rev Microbiol 1990, 44:531–553.CrossRef 3. Ross C, Abel-Santos E: The ger receptor family from sporulating bacteria. Curr Issues Mol Biol 2010, 12:147–157.PubMed 4. Hudson KD, Corfe BM, Kemp EH, Feavers IM, Coote PJ, Moir A: Localization of GerAA and GerAC germination proteins in the Bacillus subtilis spore. J Bact 2001, 183:4317–4322.PubMedCrossRef 5. Paidhungat M, Setlow P: Localization of a germinant receptor protein (GerBA) to the inner membrane of Bacillus subtilis spores. J Bact 2001, 183:3982–3990.PubMedCrossRef 6. Moir A: How do spores germinate? J Appl Microbiol 2006, 101:526–530.PubMedCrossRef 7. Griffiths KK, Zhang JQ, Cowan AE, Yu J, Setlow P: Germination proteins in the inner membrane

of dormant Bacillus subtilis spores colocalize in a discrete cluster. Mol Microbiol 2011, 81:1061–1077.PubMedCrossRef 8. Sammons RL, Moir A, Smith DA: Isolation and properties of spore germination mutants of Bacillus subtilis 168 deficient in the initiation of germination. J Gen Microbiol 1981, 124:229–241. 9. Clements MO, Moir A: Role of the gerI operon of Bacillus cereus Inositol monophosphatase 1 569 in the response of spores to germinants. J Bact 1998, 180:6729–6735.PubMed 10. Paidhungat M, Setlow P: Role of ger proteins in nutrient and nonnutrient triggering of spore germination in Bacillus subtilis . J Bact 2000, 182:2513–2519.PubMedCrossRef 11. Barlass PJ, Houston CW, Clements MO, Moir A: Germination of Bacillus cereus spores in response to L – alanine and to inosine: the roles of gerL and gerQ operons. Microbiology 2002, 148:2089–2095.PubMed 12. Ireland JAW, Hanna PC: Amino acid- and purine ribonucleoside-induced germination of Bacillus anthracis Delta Sterne endospores gerS mediates responses to aromatic ring structures.

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