Preliminary phytochemical tests
were done. The ALE showed presence of alkaloids, flavonoides, carbohydrates, tannins and steroids, while carbohydrates, flavonoides, alkaloids were present with AQE. The PEE, CHE, ALE did not produce any mortality. Carbon tetrachloride produced significant changes in biochemical parameters (increases in serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), Serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT), alanine phosphatase (ALP) and serum bilirubin.) and histological (damage to hepatocytes) using Standard drug Liv-52. Pretreatment with ALE and AQE extracts significantly prevented the biochemical and histological changes induced by CCl(4) in the liver. The present study shows that the ALE and AQE VEGFR inhibitor extracts possessed hepatoprotective activity.”
“Study Design. Prospective observational cohort study.
Objective. To define the utility of the revised Tokuhashi score in relation to predicting survival in patients with spinal metastases regardless of the treatment
Summary of Background Data. The revised Tokuhashi score has been used for the prediction of survival. In this scoring system, however, all the patients were sourced by orthopedic surgeons, and asymptomatic patients were excluded. That might present a significant source of patient selection bias. The treatment plan was also affected by the predicted survival in their system.
Methods. All patients within 2 years of diagnosis of spinal metastases, whether symptomatic were recruited. Minimum 1-year follow-up
was required. During the study period, PX-478 in vitro a total of 85 patients were analyzed including 44 patients who died within 1 year. The relation between the revised Tokuhashi score and survival were analyzed using the Cox proportional hazard model and Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient.
Results. The mean age was 60.3 years (range: 35-84) and the median survival was 11.6 months. On multivariate analysis, lower performance status (Karnofsky performance status, 50%-70%) and unresectable organ metastases were significantly AZD5582 associated with poor survival, with hazard ratios of 2.92 and 4.44, respectively. In primary cancer type, lung and kidney cancer were also significantly associated with poor survival, with hazard ratios of 4.25 and 2.60, respectively. The revised Tokuhashi score groups were significantly correlated with the survival groups (rho = 0.530, P < 0.001). In 67 (79%) of 85 patients, actual survival matched the predicted survival.
Conclusion. Lower score on performance status, the existence of organ metastases, and primary cancer of the lung and the kidney were significantly associated with poor survival. The revised Tokuhashi score was found to be very useful to predict survival regardless of the treatment pathway.