In patients with tuberculoma IRIS, we observed a high prevalence

In patients with tuberculoma IRIS, we observed a high prevalence of 1) low density lesions on non-contrast-enhanced CT (all lesions), 2) multiple lesions (in 5/10 patients) and 3) perilesional oedema (17/22 lesions). In patients with meningitis, meningeal enhancement (n = 2) and hydrocephalus (n = 1) were infrequently observed.

CONCLUSION: This is the first substantial series to describe the radiological features of paradoxical neurological TB-IRIS. Compared to published radiological findings of tuberculomas in HIV-1-infected patients (not receiving LY2157299 supplier ART), an increased inflammatory response is suggested in tuberculoma IRIS. However, this was not observed in patients with TB meningitis

“Patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) often present with a disfiguring shoulder imbalance. Shoulder balance (Sh.B) is of

significant importance to the patient’s self-perception. Previous studies have correlated Sh.B with respect to only the clinical posterior view correlated with radiographs. It is important, however, to address Sh.B with respect to anterior view of the patients’ shoulders as if patients were viewing in a mirror. In this study, we evaluated the anterior Sh.B and correlated it with posterior Sh.B clinically and radiographically in Lenke type 1 and 2 curves.

An online scoliosis database was queried to identify 74 AIS patients with Lenke 1 (n = 55, age 15.28 +/- A 3.35) and 2 (n = 19, age 15.66 +/- A 3.72) curves with a complete HSP990 solubility dmso set of PA radiographs and anterior and posterior photos. Radiographic measures for Sh.B included Cobb angles, T1 tilt, first rib angle, and clavicle-rib intersection angle. Clinical measures for Sh.B

included inner shoulder angle, outer shoulder angle, AZD8055 solubility dmso and axillary fold angle. Regression analysis with Pearson’s correlation and ANOVA for statistical significance was used for analysis.

For Lenke 1 curves, there was moderate statistically significant correlation between anterior and posterior clinical Sh.B (R = 0.35-0.41). There was only weak to moderate correlation between radiographic and clinical measures. For Lenke 2 curves, there was a weak to moderate correlation between anterior and posterior clinical Sh.B (R = 0.25-0.45), though not statistically significant. There was no statistically significant correlation between any radiographic measures and posterior Sh.B. There was, however, moderate and significant correlation between radiographic measures and anterior Sh.B.

There is no strong correlation between anterior and posterior clinical Sh.B, and surgeons should evaluate both sides in planning deformity correction, especially in Lenke 2 curves. None of the radiographic measures showed strong correlation (R > 0.8) with anterior or posterior clinical Sh.B. A stronger correlation existed between radiographic measures and anterior Sh.B measurements compared with posterior clinical Sh.


A PLK inhibitor total of 148 hoof scrapings were collected by farm staff over the period September 2005 to May 2006. F. necrophorum was detected in 79/148 of the samples, while D. nodosus was detected in 7/148 of the samples. The frequent finding of F. necrophorum within dairy herds in New Zealand is noteworthy and the occasional finding of D. nodosus on some dairy cattle suggests a possible role in both ovine and bovine hoof pathology. (c) 2009

Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The bruchid, Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) causes major losses during the storage of cowpea seeds [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] in Sri Lanka. Essential oil isolated from Plectranthus zeylanicus plant was tested for potential insecticidal activity against C. maculatus. The gas chromatography studies of the essential oil of P. zeylanicus showed that rho-cymene (3.5%), beta-caryophyllene PCI32765 (0.2%), geranyl acetate (9.3%) and geraniol (7.2%) were the major constituents. The adults of C. maculatus were susceptible to both fumigant and contact toxicity of P. zeylanicus

plant oil. LC50 values of 0.927 and 0.010 g L-1 were obtained for fumigant toxicity and contact toxicity assays, respectively. Oviposition and F-1 adult emergence were significantly inhibited by P. zeylanicus plant oil at a concentration higher than 0.001 g L-1 in both fumigant and contact toxicities. The analysis of olfactometer and choice camber bioassays revealed the repellent effects of the oil of P. zeylanicus plant.”
“The present study analyzed Ostertagia ostertagi antibodies by indirect ELISA in milk samples in two cattle systems in Mediterranean Spain to indirectly monitor gastrointestinal nematode (GI) parasitism effects on production. Individual samples from 10 animals and the corresponding milk herd samples were collected from 133 herds in Girona (intensive management) and 123 herds in Minorca (extensive management). Both locations showed high and significant GSK1838705A positive relationships between

average optical density ratios (ODR) of individual animals and ODR in their milk tank. Although antibodies levels were low, there were significantly higher in Minorca. Negative correlations between ODR values and milk production were found in both systems. Importantly, in Minorca, average herd milk production was higher in the herds that treated their animals against GI nematodes compared to those that did not treat. The ELISA technique was valuable to indirectly assess differences in the level of GI nematode infection even in cattle production systems with low levels of infection. (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder resulting in impaired memory and behaviour of remarkable socio-economic impact. A decrease in cholinergic activity is a key event in the biochemical of AD. Buddleja thyrsoides is a plant widely distributed in Southern parts of South America.

Results: Total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), LDL-cholester

Results: Total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), LDL-cholesterol (LDL) and VLDL-cholesterol (VLDL) levels decreased significantly (p < 0.05) in the diabetic animals by 12.5, 23.86, 14.96 and 20 %, respectively, compared to their initial values. The extract increased HDL-cholesterol (HDL) and tissue glycogen selleck products levels by 25.0 and 172.3 %, respectively, in diabetic rats. Similarly, differential regulation and expression of glucose homeostatic enzymes, namely, glucokinase

(GK), glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase), phosphoenol pyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PDH) and Insulin II (Ins II), showed significant improvement upon extract treatment in STZ-induced diabetic rats.

Conclusion: These results demonstrate the anti-diabetic, and hypolipidemic activities of Cinnamomum zeylanicum aqueous

bark extract in diabetic rats.”
“Pseudocyesis is a rare condition in the pediatric population characterized by all signs and symptoms of pregnancy except the existence of a fetus [1]. In some patients it is associated with organic etiology, in others with mental disorders, also occurs in those without disorders in their medical history. Pseudocyesis occurs in both sexes, but more frequently in women. An effective treatment is a combination of psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy with antidepressants and antipsychotics [2]. We present a 15,9-year old girl with pseudocyesis as a cause of abdomen enlargement, who comes from GSK1210151A mouse an ordinary family with a negative history of psychiatric illness. The organic etiology AS1842856 of her

condition was excluded, and therefore she was treated with antidepressants which contributed to the resolution of her case.”
“Purpose: To evaluate the effect of boiling on in vitro bioactivities potency of Balanites aegyptiaca L. Delile (desert date) aqueous extract, a juice used traditionally for cooking ready-to-eat millet flour paste.

Methods: Desert date fruits (1.5 kg) were soaked in water (1: 2, fruit: water) for 24 h and sieved. The extract was divided into two parts – fresh extract (Fext) and boiled extract (Bext) which was obtained by boiling a portion of Fext for 10 min. The extracts were tested against the stomach cancer cell line SGC7901 and for antioxidant activity by 1,1-diphenyl-2-icrylhydrazyl DPPH, hydroxyl radical and ferric reducing power methods.

Results: Both fresh extract (Fext) and boiled extract (Bext) exhibited pronounced antioxidant activity with DPPH values of 88.2 and 97.0 %, respectively, at hydroxyl radical concentration of 5 mg/ml. The extract contained a significant amount of vitamin C (42.3 and 38.9 mg/100 g for Fext and Bext, respectively). Boiling had significant effect (p < 0.01) on its antioxidant activity and also on its cytotoxic effect (56 % and 44 % dead cells respectively for Bext and Fext at respectively, at a concentration of 200 mu g/ml).

Conclusion: It is concluded that B.

Some objective measures (respiratory function, observer-rated opi

Some objective measures (respiratory function, observer-rated opioid agonist effects) were similarly enhanced by pre-treatment with the highest dose of aprepitant. All dose combinations were safely tolerated. These findings are discussed in the context of the potential utility of NK1 antagonists in the treatment

of opioid use disorders.”
“Background: Acute cervical spinal cord injury (cSCI) is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Vertebral level and American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) score influence both hospital course and ultimate outcome. While controlling for these variables, we describe the effect of age on cSCI-related pneumonia Captisol and mortality.

Methods: All patients treated at our regional spinal cord injury center with an acute cSCI during a 5-year period (2005-2009) were reviewed retrospectively. Patient demographics, injury level, ASIA score, length of stay (LOS), radiologic, laboratory, and microbiology data were reviewed. Pneumonia FK506 was defined as an infiltrate on chest X-ray along

with two of the following: leukocytosis, fever greater than 101 F, or positive bronchial alveolar lavage cultures; all occurring within the same 24-hour period.

Results: There were 244 cSCI during the study period. In-hospital mortality was significantly higher for those older than 75 years (40.5% vs. 4.0%, p < 0.0001). Pneumonia rates were not significantly different between age groups. In all age groups, high ASIA scores (A and B) were associated with increased pneumonia (61.9% vs. 17.4%, p < 0.0001) and mortality (16.7% vs. 3.5%, p =

0.002). Similarly, patients with higher cervical injury levels (C4 and above) had a higher incidence of pneumonia (39.5% vs. 25.9%, p < 0.05) and a trend toward higher mortality.

Conclusions: Age was associated with an increase in mortality among patients with an acute cSCI. Injury level and ASIA score contributed significantly to overall pneumonia rate and mortality at all ages; however, pneumonia did not correlate directly with mortality in this population. Other factors play a role in the mortality CB-839 associated with geriatric spinal cord-injured patients, including end-of-life decision making; these need to be investigated further in future studies.”
“Total knee arthroplasty performed under spinal or general anesthesia is a common successful orthopedic procedure. Nonetheless, in patients with diabetes mellitus this procedure can present unique challenges to orthopedic surgeon and anesthesiologist alike. We describe a case of an elderly male diabetic patient who developed bilaterally symmetrical lower limb neurological deficit following an uneventful total knee arthroplasty performed under spinal anesthesia.

We also fitted a bivariate probit model with cluster-robust SE tr

We also fitted a bivariate probit model with cluster-robust SE treating the choices from two stages as two correlated binary outcomes. The rank of relative importance between attributes and the estimates of beta coefficient within attributes

were used to assess the model robustness.

Results: In total 468 participants with each completing 10 choices were analyzed. Similar results were reported for the rank of relative importance and beta coefficients AZD1152 concentration across models for stage-one data on evaluating participants’ preferences for the test. The six attributes ranked from high to low as follows: cost, specificity, process, sensitivity, preparation and pain. However, the Sapitinib results differed across models for stage-two data on evaluating participants’ willingness to undertake the tests. Little within-patient correlation

(ICC approximate to 0) was found in stage-one data, but substantial within-patient correlation existed (ICC = 0.659) in stage-two data.

Conclusions: When small clustering effect presented in DCE data, results remained robust across statistical models. However, results varied when larger clustering effect presented. Therefore, it is important to assess the robustness of the estimates via sensitivity analysis using different models for analyzing clustered data from DCE studies.”
“Progress in some areas of medical research is leading to larger and more complex therapeutic products – for example, cellular or gene therapies. For decades, the bioprocessing industry has relied upon column chromatography as the mainstay of purification processes. Whilst highly effective for the purification of proteins and smaller molecules, chromatographic techniques

are not necessarily well suited to purification of these newer, larger targets. This article considers the approaches adopted in the purification of large, complex targets and emphasises PF-02341066 molecular weight the need for more focused development of purification techniques more suited to the target’s size and complexity. (C) 2008 Society of Chemical Industry”
“Objective: To provide rationale for testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) in older men with low testosterone levels and symptoms consistent with testosterone deficiency.

Methods: The relevant literature was reviewed using PubMed.

Results: Cross-sectional and longitudinal populationbased studies indicate that total and free testosterone levels fall with aging, and they may be accompanied by symptoms consistent with androgen deficiency.

Descriptive statistics were determined Independent sample t-test

Descriptive statistics were determined. Independent sample t-test and one-way variance test

were utilized for continuous variables and chi-square test for dichotomous variables. Results: The mean INR value for all patients was 1.2 +/- 0.3. The INR value was significantly associated with the diagnosis of liver cirrhosis, the diagnoses of Hepatitis B and C together, the presence of ascites alone, and the number of clinical signs and symptoms (i.e. ascites, jaundice and encephalopathy) present. GANT61 Nine patients with INR values between 1.5 and 2 underwent invasive dental procedures without postoperative bleeding complications. Conclusion: There were no episodes of postoperative bleeding in patients. The findings suggest that clinicians should not rely solely on an INR value to predict post-procedure bleeding in patients with liver disease.”
“Heating of the bromination product of 4-methyl-3,6-dihydro-2H-pyran

with 4-toluidine or 2-bromo-4-methylamiline in triethylamine gave 4-methyl-N-(4-methylphenyl)- and N-(2-bromo-4-methylphenyl)-4-methyl-3,6-dihydro-2H-pyran-3-amines which were converted into the corresponding amides by reaction with bromo-or chloroacetyl chloride. 1-4a,6-Dimethyl-4a,9a-dihydropyrano[3,4-b]indol-9(1H)-yl-ethanone was synthesized in good yield by heating N-(2-bromo-4-methylphenyl)-N-(4-methyl-3,6-dihydro-2H-pyran-3-yl)acetamide in boiling toluene in the presence of palladium(II)acetate, triphenylphosphine, copper(II) acetate, triethylamine, and potassium carbonate.”
“Bilateral infarction of the medial medulla (MMI) is rare. Limited BMS-345541 cell line information is available on clinical characteristics, etiology, and prognosis. High-resolution neuroimaging has a major role in elucidating the underlying stroke mechanism. The aim of this systematic

check details review was to analyze the clinical presentations, stroke mechanisms, and outcomes in patients with bilateral MMI. We performed a systematic review of the literature from 1992-2011 that reported on clinical presentations, stroke mechanism, and/or outcomes in patients with magnetic resonance imaging-proven bilateral MMI. Medline, EMBASE, and Web of Science Scholars Portal were searched without language restriction. Two reviewers independently assessed identified studies to determine eligibility, validity, and quality. The primary outcome was inpatient mortality; a secondary outcome was case fatality at 12 months. We identified 138 articles from Medline, EMBASE, and Scholars Portal including the MeSH terms “”brainstem infarction,”" “”medulla,”" and “”bilateral.”" Twenty-nine articles met our inclusion criteria, including a total of 38 cases with bilateral MMI, and included in our study. These 38 patients had a mean age of 62.2 years and were predominately male (74.2%). The most common clinical presentations were motor weakness in 78.4%, dysarthria in 48.6%, and hypoglossal palsy in 40.5%. The most common vascular pathology was vertebral artery atherosclerosis, in 38.5%.

However, in our setting, where resources are limited and newer tr

However, in our setting, where resources are limited and newer treatment options are expensive, it is often difficult to deliver MDV3100 supplier the best care to the patient.”
“Dielectric and direct piezoelectric responses in non-doped and Mn-doped Pb0.91La0.09(Zr-0.65,Ti-0.35)O-3

ceramics are experimentally studied. The permittivity and the direct piezoelectric coefficient were measured by applying an ac electric field or a mechanical stress, respectively. The results show that the dielectric response is mainly due to an extrinsic contribution at room temperature. A notable reduction in room temperature dielectric losses by Mn-doping is verified. The temperature of the minimum of the losses depends on the Mn-content, enabling the Pb0.91La0.09(Zr-0.65,Ti-0.35)O-3 properties to be tuned from soft to hard. A significant stabilization of the

dielectric and piezoelectric responses, related to domain wall motion reduction, is confirmed in Mn-doped materials, so these materials become good candidates for transducer applications. The correlation between the dielectric constant and dielectric losses is discussed in terms of the Rayleigh model. Results show that Mn-doped PLZT response does not fit this model. This fact could be explained by taking into account the nature of the defects created by manganese addition. These complex defects act as pinning centers, and the reversible movement of domain walls provide a significant contribution to the response of these materials. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3622338]“
“Optimization LY2835219 order of medium composition for the improvement of heterotrophic cultivation of green microalgae. Dinaciclib concentration Tetraselmis suecica, was performed using response surface methodology (RSM).

Heterotrophic cultivation of T. suecica was conducted in total darkness using Walne medium formulated with natural sea water. Initially, the effect of two types of carbon source (glucose and sodium acetate) and various types of nitrogen source (peptone, yeast extract, meat extract, malt extract, urea, sodium nitrate and ammonium nitrate) on growth of T. suecica was studied. The concentration of medium component that was found to significantly influence the heterotrophic growth of T. suecica (glucose, peptone, yeast extract and meat extract) was further optimized using RSM. The medium that consists of 5.78 g/L glucose, 9 g/L peptone, 4.48 g/L yeast extract and 3.01 g/L meat extract was found optimal for heterotrophic cultivation of T. suecica. The final cell concentration (28.88 g/L) obtained in heterotrophic cultivation using this optimized medium was about 3 and 2 times higher than obtained in photoautotrophic culture (8.40 g/L) and non-optimized medium for heterotrophic cultivation (13.81 g/L), respectively.

All rights reserved “
“Natural rubber (NR) of grade RSS4 was

All rights reserved.”
“Natural rubber (NR) of grade RSS4 was efficiently cured (crosslinked) by using sulfur: accelerator weight ratio of 1 : 4. This was further compounded with high abrasion grade carbon black filler (grade JNJ-26481585 N330) with three different doses, that is, 5,

10, and 20 wt % of rubber to form three different filled and crosslinked membranes designated as NR5, NR10, and NR20, respectively. These filled rubber membranes and one unfilled but efficiently cured membrane, that is, NR0, were used for pervaporative removal of low concentration of pyridine from water. The filled membranes were found to show higher pyridine selectivity but lower flux than the unfilled membrane. All of these membranes showed reasonably good range of flux and pyridine selectivity. Among all of the used membranes, NR5-filled membrane yielded high pyridine selectivity (122) with reasonable thickness normalized flux (2.2 kg m-2 h-1 m mu) at 40 degrees C for 0.5 wt % of pyridine in water. AZD9291 mouse (C) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2012″

cancer is the most lethal of the gynecologic malignancies. Because ovarian cancer symptoms are subtle and nonspecific, the diagnosis is often delayed until the disease is well advanced. Overall 5-year survival is a rather dismal 50% but can be improved to greater than 90% if the disease is confined to the ovary at the time of diagnosis (generally in fewer than 25% of patients). Effective screening tools are currently not available. Owing to the rather low incidence of the disease in the general population, potential screening tests must provide very high specificity to avoid unnecessary interventions in false-positive cases. This article reviews currently available serum biomarkers and imaging tests for the early detection of ovarian cancer and provides an outlook on the potential improvements in these noninvasive diagnostic tools that may lead to successful implementation in a screening program. (C) RSNA, 2011″
“The dense granule protein 4 (GRA4) is a granular protein from Toxoplasma gondii, and is a candidate for vaccination against this parasite. In this study, the plasmid pcDNA3.1-GRA4 (pGRA4), encoding for the GRA4 antigen, was incorporated by the dehydration-rehydration method into liposomes composed of 16 mmol/L egg phosphatidylcholine (PC), 8 mmol/L dioleoyl phosphatidylethanolamine (DOPE), and 4 mmol/L 1,2-diodeoyl-3-(trimethylammonium) propane (DOTAP). C57BL/6 mice and BALB/c mice were immunized intramuscularly three times with liposome-encapsulated pGRA4 to determine whether DNA immunization could elicit a protective immune response to T. gondii. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) of sera from immunized mice showed that liposome-encapsulated pGRA4 generated high levels of IgG antibodies to GRA4. Production of primary interferon (IFN)-gamma and interleukin (IL)-2 in GRA4-stimulated splenocytes from vaccinated mice suggested a modulated Th1-type response. 72.

Motor activity was decreased in Tg mice seven months after CPF tr

Motor activity was decreased in Tg mice seven months after CPF treatment. Acquisition learning in a water maze task was not affected, but retention was ameliorated in CPF-exposed Tg mice. Amyloid beta levels increased selleck products in the brains of treated Tg mice eight months after CPF exposure. The results of this study show that some behavioral changes persisted or emerged months after acute CPF exposure, while amyloid beta levels increased. These findings raise concern about the risk of developing neurodegenerative

diseases following moderate exposure to CPF in vulnerable subjects.”
“Phonon densities of states (DOS) for the high performing thermoelectric material, AgPbmSbTe2+m (LAST-m, m = 16, 18, and 20), were extracted from time-of-flight inelastic neutron scattering measurements. The phonon DOS of LAST-18 differs remarkably from LAST-16 and LAST-20 by exhibiting a dramatic broadening of its acoustic modes that increases on heating. This broadening coincides with a minimum in the thermal conductivity, a maximum in the electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient, and a related peak in thermoelectric performance.

We argue that the anomalous broadening originates with scattering enhanced by modifications to Te-Ag(Sb) bonds caused by their resonant electronic states falling near the Fermi energy for m = 18. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi: 10.1063/1.3581155]“
“Amyotrophic Citarinostat Epigenetics inhibitor lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that, for similar to 80% of patients, is fatal within five years of diagnosis. To better understand ALS, animal models have been essential; however, only rodent models of ALS exhibit the major hallmarks of the disease. Here, we report the generation of transgenic zebrafish overexpressing mutant Sod1. The construct used to generate these lines contained the zebrafish sod1 gene and similar to 16 kb of flanking sequences. We generated lines expressing the G93R mutation, as well as lines expressing

wild-type Sod1. Focusing on two G93R lines, we found that they displayed the major phenotypes of ALS. Changes at the neuromuscular selleck chemicals junction were observed at larval and adult stages. In adulthood the G93R mutants exhibited decreased endurance in a swim tunnel test. An analysis of muscle revealed normal muscle force, however, at the end stage the fish exhibited motoneuron loss, muscle atrophy, paralysis and premature death. These phenotypes were more severe in lines expressing higher levels of mutant Sod1 and were absent in lines overexpressing wild-type Sod1. Thus, we have generated a vertebrate model of ALS to complement existing mammal models.”
“beta-amyloid protein (A beta)-induced neurotoxicity is the main component of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) neuropathogenesis. Inhalation anesthetics have long been considered to protect against neurotoxicity.

“We report on the magnetic properties of B2-type ordered F

“We report on the magnetic properties of B2-type ordered FeRh epitaxial thin films deposited on MgO(001) substarates as a function of film thickness. All the films show a clear magnetic phase transition from the antiferromagnetic state to the ferromagnetic state with increasing temperature while the transition temperature of a 10-nm-thick film decreases down to 300 K. The 10-nm-thick film also shows a large magnetization even in the antiferromagnetic state compared with other thicker films. These magnetization

data indicate that the ferromagnetic state is becoming more stable than the antiferromagnetic state with decreasing film thickness. check details Such thickness dependent magnetic properties are qualitatively compatible with a theoretical prediction for FeRh(001) thin layers. (C) 2009 American Institute of Physics. [DOI: 10.1063/1.3054386]“
“Effects of catechins and green tea extract (GTE) on the photosensitized singlet oxygen oxidation of linoleic acid were studied. Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG)

showed the highest antioxidant activity, followed by gallocatechin gallate, epigallocatechin, and epicatechin in a decreasing order. alpha-Tocopherol showed strong antioxidative activity at the initial oxidation stage, but its antioxidative property rapidly decreased with illumination time. EGCG showed significantly I BET 762 stronger antioxidative activity than alpha-tocopherol at the later oxidation stage (p < 0.05) due to the higher stability of EGCG. Unlike alpha-tocopherol, GTE possessed strong antioxidative activity even at the later oxidation stage. Overall, GTE was a better antioxidant than alpha-tocopherol for the protection of linoleic acid from singlet oxygen oxidation. Electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy and visible-spectroscopic data showed unambiguous evidences that the protective activity of GTE against the photosensitized oxidation of linoleic acid was due to the singlet oxygen quenching mechanism.”
“Background and aims: Dendritic cells (DC) are key players in intestinal immunity, as these cells can direct

the immune response to HDAC inhibitor either a tolerogenic or an immunogenic phenotype. In the intestine, DC sample and process luminal antigens by protruding dendrites through the epithelial cell layer. At the same time barrier integrity is maintained through the continuous formation of tight junctions. Aberrations in these interactions may lead to altered antigen sampling and improper immune responses. We have recently shown that autophagy, a process implicated in the pathogenesis of Crohn’s disease, regulates cellular interactions in the context of DC and T cells. In this study we aimed to determine whether autophagy also regulates DC epithelial cell interactions and whether this influences the ensuing immune response.

Methods: DC were generated from peripheral blood monocytes of healthy volunteers. For interaction studies, DC were co-cultured with intestinal epithelial cells on the baso-lateral side of a transwell insert.