In the present work, two elicitors (SA and JA) and adsorbents (HP

In the present work, two elicitors (SA and JA) and adsorbents (HP2MGL) were introduced into the Vitis vinifera cell suspension Selleck SNX-5422 culture, and the results indicated that they could work synergistically to improve the production of trans-resveratrol (2666.7 mg L-1). Afterward, 1 mM [1-C-13]-L-phenylalanine (Phe) was added to bioproduce C-13-labeled trans-resveratrol with the C-13 enrichment from 35.7% at day 5 to 20.8% at day 10. Purification of the products by several chromatographic steps was reported, and the C-13 labeling position was verified using C-13 NMR. Our results

indicated that, in this case, the rate limiting step of production was the post-biosynthetic events rather than the biosynthesis in elicited culture.

Furthermore, our results suggested the importance of simultaneous optimization of biosynthetic pathways of metabolites and their post-biosynthetic steps toward achieving commercial plant cell culture. With the help of this technique, we could expect to do industrial scaling-up in a bioreactor to produce high amounts of the non-labeled and C-13-labeled trans-resveratrol in the near future. (c) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Relationships between plant invasion and the soil seed bank in highly diverse fire adapted mediterranean woodlands are poorly understood, yet critical for that ecosystem’s conservation. Within buy Z-DEVD-FMK Ricolinostat the biodiversity hotspot of southwest Australia we investigated the composition and diversity of the Banksia woodland soil seed bank in good condition (GC), medium condition (MC) and poor condition invaded by the South African perennial species Ehrharta calycina (PCe) and Pelorgonium capitatum (PCp). The investigation

assessed three questions: (1) Do soil seed banks of invaded sites have fewer germinants of native species and more germinants of introduced (non-native) species than sites with minimal invasion? (2) Do soil seed banks show shifts in ecological functional types with invasion? (3) Is the soil seed bank of introduced species persistent? Native species germinants, mainly shrubs and perennial herbs, were highest in GC sites and least in poorer condition sites suggesting a reduction in their numbers had occurred over time. Introduced germinants were dominated by perennial and annual grasses, and annual herbs. E. calycina had the greatest seed density (8328 germinants m 2). More introduced than native germinants occurred in the litter. Rapid germination of introduced species (30% in week 1) compared to native species (4% in week 1) provides the capacity for their early dominance. A limited native soil seed bank and dominant persistent introduced soil seed bank represent great challenges for the structural and functional conservation and restoration of woodland ecosystems.

Although the treatment is established, the patient dies after sep

Although the treatment is established, the patient dies after sepsis and failure of vital organs. Clearly, the morbidity associated to this infection, even in diabetic patients, can be minimized if an early diagnosis and effective debridement are done.”
“Background and Purpose: Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) is considered to be a clean-contaminated surgical procedure, and all patients are recommended to receive antibiotic prophylaxis before the operation to prevent septic events. The aim of the present study is to prospectively compare two different protocols of antibiotic prophylaxis in PCNL.

Patients and Methods:

Seventy-three patients with preoperative sterile urine were randomized into single-dose

or short-course antibiotic prophylaxis groups. AC220 in vivo Patients in the first group (n=36) were given only a single dose of ceftriaxone during induction of anesthesia, while the second group (n=37) were given an oral third-generation cephalosporin after ceftriaxone until nephrostomy catheter withdrawal. For each patient, urine samples that were taken during initial access into the collecting system, as well as some stone fragments, were sent for culture and sensitivity analysis. Moreover, urine samples of the patients were cultured preceding nephrostomy catheter removal. Occurrence of perioperative infection related events was compared in both groups.

Results: The demographic and treatment-related characteristics of both groups were similar. Peroperative urine

samples revealed bacteriuria in one and two patients for the first and second groups, find more respectively. Fever of >38 degrees C (P=0.52) developed in four (11.1%) patients in the first and six (16.2%) patients in the second group. Positive stone cultures developed in eight patients; of those, three (8.3%) were click here in the first and five (13.5%) were in the second group (P=0.47). The urine sent for culture on the nephrostomy catheter withdrawal day had positive results in three and two patients for the first and second groups (P=0.54).

Conclusion: Both antibiotic prophylaxis methods were similar in terms of preventing septic complications. Therefore, we think that a single-dose antibiotic prophylaxis protocol may be safely recommended to patients undergoing PCNL.”
“Contents The aim of this study was to compare the effects of two extraction methods in combination with two different extenders in bull epididymal sperm collection. Testes from 23 sexually mature Limousine bulls were collected at the abattoir. Epididymal sperm recovery was performed using both the float-up (FL) and the retrograde flushing (RF) technique. Within extraction methods, half testes were processed with a Tris egg yolk extender and half with a Tris egg yolk-free extender. Sperm concentration, motility, viability and morphology were evaluated. Sperm concentration was not significantly different between methods.

Materials and Methods: The institutional review board approved th

Materials and Methods: The institutional review board approved this retrospective study and waived the requirement to obtain informed consent from patients. Sixty-four patients (40 men, 24 women; mean age, BIIB057 64 years) who underwent TEVAR were evaluated. The treated diseases included dissection (n = 29), degenerative aneurysm (n = 13), acute traumatic transection (n = 8), pseudoaneurysm (n = 4), penetrating aortic ulcer (n = 6), intramural hematoma (n = 2), and mycotic aneurysm (n

= 2). Bird-beak configuration, defined as the incomplete apposition of the proximal endograft with a wedge-shaped gap between the device and the aortic wall, was assessed with postprocedural CT angiography. The presence and length of the bird-beak configuration were compared with the formation of endoleaks and adverse clinical events.

Results: Endoleaks were detected in 26 (40%) of the 64 patients, including 14 with type Ia endoleak formation, one with type Ib endoleak formation, six with type II endoleak formation (from the left subclavian artery), two with type IIo endoleak formation (from other arteries), and three with type III endoleak formation. Bird-beak configuration

was observed in 28 (44%) of 64 patients and correlated significantly with the risk of developing a type Ia or IIa endoleak (P < .01). Mean bird-beak length was significantly longer (P < .01) in patients with a type Ia or II endoleak

selleck chemical (mean length, 14.3 and 13.9 mm, respectively) than in patients without endoleaks (mean length, MK-4827 nmr 8.4 mm). Adverse events included early aortic-related death in three patients, additional treatment for endoleak in eight patients, and stent-graft collapse or infolding in six patients.

Conclusion: Detection of bird-beak configuration is helpful in the prediction of adverse clinical events after TEVAR. (C) RSNA, 2010″
“Although zinc oxide is a promising material for the fabrication of short wavelength optoelectronic devices, p-type doping is a step that remains challenging for the realization of diodes. Out of equilibrium methods such as ion implantation are expected to dope ZnO successfully provided that the non-radiative defects introduced by implantation can be annealed out. In this study, ZnO substrates are implanted with nitrogen ions, and the extended defects induced by implantation are studied by transmission electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction (XRD) before and after annealing at 900 degrees C. Before annealing, these defects are identified to be dislocation loops lying either in basal planes in high N concentration regions, or in prismatic planes in low N concentration regions, together with linear dislocations. An uniaxial deformation of 0.4% along the c axis, caused by the predominant basal loops, is measured by XRD in the implanted layer.

A 13-year-old girl presented with a history of pelvic pain for 2

A 13-year-old girl presented with a history of pelvic pain for 2 months. An ultrasound examination showed a monolateral multicystic, calcific ovarian mass, measuring approximately 6 x 5 cm, arising in the left over and adnexia, suggesting a teratoma. click here An exploratorative laparotomy and ooferectomy were performed. On histopatological examination, various samples from cystic areas had mature tissues from all 3 germ cell layers, including

skin, bone, bronchial structures, and cerebellum. Sections from solid areas showed uniform population of monotonous, rounded cells with indistinct cytoplasm and having perinuclear halo (fried-egg appearance) on a fibrillary, neuropilic background. Microcalcifications as calcospherites were noted in the stroma. Based on the typical morphological features, the cased was diagnosed as mature cystic

teratoma with low-grade oligodendroglioma. To the authors’ knowledge, there are a few reports in the literature of an oligodendroglioma arising in an ovarian teratoma in adults and this presented patient is the first case in childhood.”
“A Dactolisib mouse 53-year-old man presented with fever, 15 kg weight loss, ECOG performance status 0, and 12 x 9.5 cm renal tumor with an associated level II (near level III) tumor thrombus extending into the vena cava. We offered a presurgical targeted therapy to downsize the thrombus and primary tumor, which may reduce the extent of the surgery and operative risk. The patient accepted this approach with administration of sorafenib, resulting in a marked reduction of the primary renal tumor and 43% regression in tumor thrombus. Tumor shrinkage and regression of the thrombus allowed resection of the left kidney. Pathological findings revealed that part of the tumor was necrotic tissue. Two years after initiation of presurgical sorafenib therapy, the patient remains alive without evidence of disease progression. Copyright (C) 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel”
“Kasabach-Merritt phenomenon (KMP) is a serious coagulopathy S63845 cost with severe thrombocytopenia

(<10,000/mm(3)) that occurs in the presence of an enlarging vascular tumor such as kaposiform hemangioendothelioma (KHE) and tufted angioma (TA). The natural history and treatment of these lesions remain controversial. The authors report a KHE case and a TA case that presented with KMP, describing their successful pharmacological management with vincristine, ticlopidine, and aspirin.”
“The magnetic properties of the LaFeO3 nanospheres and nanotubes prepared by using the molten salt method have been investigated by magnetization measurements. The zero-field-cooled (ZFC) curve for the LaFeO3 nanospheres exhibits a maximum at 44 K while the ZFC curve for the LaFeO3 nanotubes exhibits two maxima: one, at 48 K, and the other, at 5 K. The maximums at 44 K and 48 K are ascribed to the average blocking temperature of the core moment.

Patterning of the wafer with the He(*) was demonstrated with two

Patterning of the wafer with the He(*) was demonstrated with two methods. First, a mesh was used to protect parts of the wafer making an array of grid lines. Second, a standing wave of lambda=1083 nm light was used to channel and focus the He(*) atoms 17DMAG in vivo into lines separated by lambda/2. The patterns were measured

with an atomic force microscope establishing an edge resolution of 80 nm. Our results are reliable and repeatable.”
“The bovine transferrin gene (TF) is located at 125 cM on bovine chromosome 1 (BTA1); it codes for transferrin, a glycoprotein that is highly conserved in many species and that is responsible for iron transport. The TF gene has been located in several QTL regions, and some transferrin classes have been associated with fat and milk yields. We analyzed by means of allele-specific oligonucleotide real-time LCL161 price PCR the c. 1455A>G SNP in exon 12 of the TF cDNA sequence (accession number U02564), which induces an Asp/Gly substitution at position 469 of the peptide. The c. 1455A>G SNP was assayed in eight

Spanish cattle breeds, as well as in two groups of Holstein-Friesian animals that had the highest and lowest estimated breeding values for milk fat yield. Analysis of the cSNP showed balanced frequencies in all breeds, with a mean of 0.44. Evaluation of a potential association between the cSNP and the groups of Holstein-Friesian animals selected for milk fat yield showed a significant association (P < 0.0006); the G allele was associated with high fat production. Significant differences in genotypic frequencies

between the groups were also detected (P < 0.0028). These results lead us to suggest that the TF gene has an effect on milk fat yield.”
“Objective. The purpose of the present study was to assess the accessory mental foramen using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images.

Study design. A total of 157 patients were enrolled in this investigation. The mental and accessory mental foramina, which show continuity with the mandibular canal, were assessed CT99021 order using axial and cross-sectional, 2-dimensional CBCT images. The sizes of the mental and accessory mental foramina were measured and statistically analyzed. Also, the distance between the mental and accessory mental foramina was measured.

Results. The accessory mental foramen was observed in 7% of patients. There was no significant difference regarding the sizes of the mental foramen between accessory mental foramen presence and absence. Also, the mean distance between the mental and accessory mental foramina was 6.3 mm (SD: 1.5 mm).

Conclusion. The accessory mental foramen, which shows continuity with the mandibular canal, could be observed in 7% of the subjects using CBCT. (Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2009; 107: 289-294)”
“Mariner-like elements are widely present in diverse organisms.

Younger, less educated, nonwhite, and married or cohabitating wom

Younger, less educated, nonwhite, and married or cohabitating women had significantly higher rates of unintended pregnancy compared with their counterparts. Rates did not differ between women deployed in the prior 12 months and nondeployed women. The age-standardized rate was 78 per 1,000 women (95% confidence interval 77-79), which is 50% higher than the general U. S. population (52/1,000


CONCLUSION: Unintended pregnancy rates in the military find more are high and have increased in most key subgroups since the 2005 survey. Efforts are needed to help service-women prevent unintended pregnancy, including during deployment. (Obstet Gynecol 2013;121:241-6) DOI: http://10.1097/AOG.0b013e31827c616e”
“OBJECTIVE: To evaluate predictors of mortality in 160 patients with tuberculous meningitis (TBM).

DESIGN: One hundred and sixty patients with TBM who had been followed for 11 years in a tertiary referral centre hospital were assessed retrospectively. GDC-0973 manufacturer Features considered as predictors of mortality in TBM were studied by multivariate logistic regression to develop a prognostic rule.

RESULTS: Of 160 patients, 84% were in Stages II and III; 27 (17%) died. In univariate analysis, age, stage, altered sensorium, underlying comorbidities, pulmonary tuberculosis, leukocytosis and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)/blood glucose < 0.30 and rise in CSF protein were associated with an increased

risk of death. In multivariable analysis, age (OR 4.64, 95%CI 1.03-24.74, P = 0.046), altered sensorium (OR 8.62, 95%CI 1.25-110.0, P = 0.036), underlying comorbidity (OR 9.75, 95%CI 1.58-59.95, P = 0.014) and leukocytosis (OR 9.74, 95%CI 1.67-56.7, P = 0.011) were shown to be the best predictors of mortality in TBM.

CONCLUSIONS: We observed that TBM patients who died were more likely to be older and have altered mental status on admission, underlying comorbidities and leukocytosis than TBM patients who survived. These factors were the most important predictors of mortality from TBM.”
“BACKGROUND: Second-hand tobacco smoke is a serious health hazard.

We tested the fidelity and feasibility of the Smoke-Free Homes (SFH) intervention and 5-Fluoracil purchase looked for preliminary evidence of its effectiveness in imposing smoking restrictions in homes in Pakistan.

METHODS: SFH was piloted and adapted for Pakistan. The adapted SFH intervention was then delivered to primary schoolchildren, community leaders and health professionals in a semi-rural Union Council. We carried out a survey before and after the intervention to assess adult smoking behaviour and restrictions at homes. We also carried out focus group discussions with stakeholders to determine the appropriateness and acceptability of the intervention.

RESULTS: We found the adapted SFH intervention feasible and appropriate in a typical semi-rural setting in Pakistan. The proportion of smoke-free homes increased from 43% (95%CI 37.4-48.2) to 85% (95%CI 80.9-89.

Due to the screening effect the application of singlewall CNTs fo

Due to the screening effect the application of singlewall CNTs for the enhancement of energy dissipation is more effective than the application of multiwall CNTs or CNT bundles at the same mass fraction of CNT inclusions. The INCB28060 inhibitor presence of a lossy dielectric (surfactant) coating can significantly increase the absorption cross section of singlewall CNTs. (c) 2010 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3516480]“
“A novel fibrous adsorbent that grafts glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) and methacrylic acid (MAA) monomer mixture onto poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) fibers was used for removal of methylene blue (MB) in aqueous solutions by a batch equilibration technique.

The operation parameters investigated included, pH of solution, removal time, graft yield, dye concentration, and reaction temperature. The adsorption rate of MB is much higher on the MAA/GMA-grafted PET fibers than on the ungrafted PET fibers. MB was removed 99% the initial dye concentration at XMU-MP-1 in vivo 10 mg L-1 and 93% at 200 mg L-1 by monomers mixture-grafted PET fibers. Pseudofirst order and pseudosecond order kinetic equations were used to examine the experimental data of different graft yield. It was found that the pseudosecond order kinetic equation described the data

of dye adsorption on fibrous adsorbent very well. The experimental isotherms data were analyzed using Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. The data was that Freundlich isotherm model fits the data very well for the dyes on the fibers adsorbent. The dye adsorbed was easily desorbed by treating with acetic acid/methanol mixture (50% V/V) at room temperature. (C) 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 119: 3034-3042, 2011″
“Mucormycosis is an aggressive and potentially

devastating fungal infection which typically manifests in pulmonary, rhinocerebral, or disseminated forms in patients with hematologic malignancy. Mucormycosis confined to the periodontium is uncommon, and to our knowledge only 6 cases have been reported in the English-language literature. This case report describes a patient with acute leukemia and periodontal mucormycosis. Calcofluor fluorescence microscopy is also proposed as a method for establishing a prompt diagnosis and guiding extent of intraoperative surgical debridement. (Oral Surg Oral MI-503 research buy Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2010; 109: e64-e69)”
“Catalysts are widely utilized to promote reactions in liquid and gaseous phases but are rarely encountered in solid state synthesis. Here we use catalytically active (001) ceria buffers to modify the structure of the epitaxial high temperature superconductor YBa2Cu3O7. The modification is achieved by catalytically-assisted synthesis of a previously unknown metastable phase. The new phase, a long-period (3.5 nm) perovskite, intercalates into the YBa2Cu3O7 matrix without negatively affecting the critical temperature of the film.

4%) Electroencephalography was useful in 3 patients (1 5%) and e

4%). Electroencephalography was useful in 3 patients (1.5%) and exercise

test did not help in any patient.

Conclusion: In some children more than one potential cause of syncope was diagnosed. That might confirm multiple factors’ causality of syncope. Head-up tilt-test has the highest diagnostic yield in children with syncope. If the diagnostic protocol is not very strict, one might find some crucial conditions in about 8.3% of patients.”
“Anisotropy HDAC inhibitor in the elastic properties of single-crystal materials is often neglected when designing microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) made of single-crystal silicon. In this report, the effects of anisotropic elasticity in single-crystal silicon on the stress concentration were analyzed and compared to isotropic simulation results. Semicircular notched beams, quarter-circle curved beams, and notched curved beams were analyzed using two-dimensional finite element method structural simulation. Two different CYT387 solubility dmso material configurations on the (001) plane and isotropic material constants were compared for each model to clarify the anisotropy effects. The stress concentration factor of a circular notch

was modified from the isotropic estimation by 7%-9% with the introduction of the anisotropic effect and became crystal-orientation dependent. Both the peak stress and stress distribution were dependent on the model configuration against the crystal axis. The results for other models were explicitly explained also by the rotation of the principal stress axis around the curved surface. A simple estimation method to select crystal orientation was proposed to minimize or maximize the stress concentration factor using

elastic anisotropy. These findings will be useful for reducing the peak stress in MEMS structures and improving their reliability. c 2009 American Institute of Physics. [DOI: 10.1063/1.3124368]“
“Nonlinear optical properties of Si nanocrystals (Si-ncs) doped SiO2 prepared by a cosputtering method were studied by z-scan technique in a femtosecond regime at around 1.6 eV. The nonlinear refractive index (n(2)) and nonlinear absorption coefficient (beta) were strongly enhanced compared learn more to those of bulk Si and found to be about similar to 2 x 10(-13) cm(2)/W and similar to 0.8 cm/GW, respectively. In the photon energy region from 1.48 to 1.65 eV, the n(2) and beta spectra followed the absorption spectra and no enhancement was observed in the band-edge photoluminescence region. In the diameter range of 2.7-5.4 nm, the size dependence of n(2) coincided well with that calculated by a pseudopotential approach, suggesting that the discrete energy states of Si-ncs are responsible for the observed enhanced optical nonlinearity. (C) 2009 American Institute of Physics. [DOI: 10.1063/1.3125446]“
“Purpose: The purpose of our research was to compare the body mass index (BMI) and selected anthropometric parameters in asthmatic and non-asthmatic pubescents.

These findings should be used in clinical practice to systematica

These findings should be used in clinical practice to systematically address QoL-related problems

of CRC patients throughout their treatment course.”
“A novel method for the organic modification of a ceramic thermal conductive filler (a-alumina) with cold plasma was developed for the preparation of elastomer thermal interface materials with high thermal conductivities and low moduli. The a-alumina fillers were first coated with low-molecular-weight polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) by solution dispersion and then GSK2879552 datasheet treated in argon plasma for different time. The modified a-alumina fillers were characterized with high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The results revealed that a thin PDMS film with several nanometers thick was tightly coated on the surface of the alumina filler after plasma treatment, and this thin film could not be removed by 48 h of Soxhlet extraction with n-hexane at 120 degrees C. Plasma modification of the alumina could dramatically weaken the strength of the fillerfiller networks and, thus, remarkably

reduce the modulus of the alumina-filled silicone rubber composites but did not affect the thermal conductivity of the composites. (c) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2012″
“Background: Cross-sectional data indicate that central adiposity is associated with cardiovascular disease risk, independent of check details total adiposity. The use of longitudinal data to investigate the relation between changes in fat distribution and the emergence of risk factors is limited.

Objective: We tested the hypothesis that age-related change in waist circumference (to reflect central adiposity)

during Selleck 4SC-202 adolescence is a significant predictor of longitudinal change in cardiovascular disease risk, after adjustment for change in body mass index (BMI) z score (to reflect total adiposity) in a cohort of postmenarcheal adolescent females. We also tested whether race modified this relation.

Design: We analyzed publicly available data from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Growth and Health Study. Longitudinal regression models were fitted to investigate the independent effects of changes in waist circumference on cardiovascular disease risk factors.

Results: Steeper age-related increases in waist circumference over time were associated with a greater increase in LDL-cholesterol concentrations, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, after adjustment for BMI z score, in white but not in black females. Change in waist circumference was not a statistically significant predictor of age-related changes in HDL-cholesterol, triglyceride, insulin, and glucose concentrations, after adjustment for changes in BMI z score, in either white or black females.

KCNJ5 mutations are associated with a better surgical outcome Pr

KCNJ5 mutations are associated with a better surgical outcome. Preoperative identification of the mutation status might have impact on surgical strategy (total vs. subtotal adrenalectomy).”
“SETTING: Nucleic acid amplification tests can detect Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex rapidly and reliably.

OBJECTIVE: To compare the diagnostic performance of the artus (R) M. tuberculosis PCR Kit and COBAS (R) AMPLICOR (TM) Mycobacterium tuberculosis Test. In the artus

assay, an appropriate cycle threshold (Ct) value was determined for positivity.

DESIGN: A total of 238 clinical respiratory specimens were analysed using both the artus and COBAS AMPLICOR assays. In 221 specimens, these results were further compared INCB024360 clinical trial with culture results.

RESULTS: The overall agreement between artus and COBAS AMPLICOR was 96.2% (229/238). Among the nine (3.8%) discrepant specimens, three (1.3%) were artus-positive and COBAS AMPLICOR-negative, while the other six (2.5%) were artus-negative and COBAS AMPLICOR-positive. Using culture as a standard, the sensitivity and specificity of the artus assay were 97.8% and 85.1%, and those of COBAS AMPLICOR assay were 100% and 86.2%, respectively.

The difference was not statistically significant. In the artus assay, AZD9291 inhibitor the minimum Ct value for the positivity determination was 38.

CONCLUSION: The artus and COBAS AMPLICOR assays showed comparable diagnostic performance and can be confidently used for detection of M. tuberculosis complex. In the artus assay, a Ct value of 38 could be suggested as an appropriate cut-off value.”
“Surgery is the only potential cure for patients with medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC). Preoperative ultrasound, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging are not sensitive enough for detection of microscopic disease. The aim of this study was to investigate if routine preoperative In-111-labelled (DTPA-D-Phe(1))-octreotide scintigraphy (SRS) could be used

as a staging procedure in planning primary surgery in patients with MTC.

This study included BKM120 solubility dmso patients with primary sporadic clinically overt MTC diagnosed between 1996 and 2009. All patients underwent conventional imaging of neck and thorax and SRS prior to standardised surgery. The findings on SRS were correlated to the findings on conventional imaging, histopathology and to postoperative biochemical results and survival.

A total of 19 patients with sporadic MTC were enrolled. Median follow-up was 77(9-184) months. SRS visualised the primary tumour in 16 (84 %) patients. Fifteen (79 %) patients had locoregional lymph node metastases, but SRS detected metastatic lesions in only 8 (53 %) patients. In three patients with distant spread, SRS failed to detect metastatic lesions in two.