The majority of the primary immune defects lead to loss of antibody; this is not only the hallmark feature of the pure B cell defects, but also includes most of those with profound T cells defects (Fig. 1).
While for patients with agammaglobulinaemia or otherwise very find more low serum Ig, severe combined immune deficiency or hyper-IgM syndromes can be considered as having no functional serum IgG antibody, other subjects with more modest degrees of immune deficiency, leading to hypogammaglobulinaemia or IgG subclass defects, can have varying degrees of retained antibody production . This is especially true for subjects with modestly reduced serum IgG and normal or nearly normal IgA and IgM. For these patients, a thorough evaluation of immune function before deciding on Ig replacement is important. This is also true for subjects with a significant degree of reactive airway disease who have been given steroids; here the reduced serum IgG may not imply significant antibody deficiency and Ig therapy would probably not prove a useful therapy . The loss of
antibody is demonstrated commonly by lack of protective IgG responses to two or more protein vaccines such as tetanus or diphtheria toxoids, Haemophilus conjugate, measles, mumps and rubella vaccines, and also by lack of response to pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccines [6,7]. Other options for protein antigens include hepatitis A or B vaccines or varicella, either after vaccination or disease Pembrolizumab purchase exposure. Examining blood for pertinent isohaemagglutinins can be used to test for (mainly) IgM anti-carbohydrate antibody production in older children and adults. Subjects who have retained antibody production
in these studies are less likely to benefit by Ig therapy. If replacement Ig therapy is initiated without a compete evaluation and the use of this therapy is questioned later for insurance or other reasons, it must be stopped for about 5 months before such an evaluation can be performed. A number of Ig products are available and deciding which one to use, and in what dose and what treatment location, are the next points to consider. In most cases, Ig is prescribed Org 27569 by brand name and not on a generic basis. In addition, as the product chosen initially is used for years, knowledge of the differences between products can be important. Numerous resources list the Ig concentrations, salt, sugar, IgA content and other components present; based on these considerations, the most suitable choices can be made. Treatment has been achieved by either intravenous (i.v.) or subcutaneous (s.c.) routes of Ig, usually in doses of 300–600 mg/kg body weight per month . This dose is divided usually into once or twice a week, or every 2 weeks (for s.c.) or every 3 or 4 weeks (i.v.).