Because stress changes in the main structural elements are antici

Because stress changes in the main structural elements are anticipated during subsequent phases of construction, a total of 48 VWSGs, 14 sensor nodes, and seven master nodes were implemented to monitor the strain variation in the mega-truss of the irregular large-scale building under construction. Based on strain data collected over a long-term monitoring for 16 months, a quantitative evaluation of the construction process was performed to determine the aspects that exhibit the greatest influence on member behavior and their effects. The numerical model was also verified by comparing the measurement results with the simulated results obtained from the preliminary analysis. In addition, variations in temperature during construction were obtained from temperature sensors, which were installed on major elements and used to investigate the effects of temperature stress on the structural elements.

The feasibility of the proposed long-term monitoring system, which is based on wireless VWSGs, to evaluate the structural safety of an irregular building under construction was investigated.2.?WSNS Using VWSGsA WSNS based on VWSGs consists of two nodes: the sensor node, which processes and transmits the raw data obtained from the VWSGs to the other network equipment (master node), and the master node, which receives all data from the sensor node and transmits the data to the monitoring server. As illustrated in Figure 1, the entire network of the WSNS in this study was wirelessly automated for the convenience of measurement and maintenance and was constructed so that the user can observe data in real time.

Figure 1.WSNS.2.1. VWSG SensorThe VWSG Batimastat has a long transmission length compared with an electrical resistance strain gauge. It also has a lower exterior electromagnetic effect, is less affected by vibration and impact force, and enables semi-permanent measurements. Longitudinal deformation of the wire can occur due to tension and compression, and the natural frequency of the VWSG can vary accordingly. This output frequency measures the average strain for the length of the vibrating wire gauge connected between the mounting blocks (Figure 2). The strain �� can be simply calculated with the change in frequency as:��=k(f22?f12)(1)where k is the gauge factor determined by the properties of the vibrating wire and length and f1 and f2 denote the natural frequency prior to and after a change, respectively.

Figure 2.VWSG.2.2. Wireless Sensor/Master NodesThe VWSGs were grouped (a maximum of four) and connected through a signal cable to the sensor node located near the sensors. Each sensor node with a four-channel sensor interface can simultaneously receive and process data from four VWSGs (Figure 3a, [34]). The raw data from the VWSGs are processed by the data processor built into the sensor node.

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