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“Background Tendinopathy is a clinical diagnosis of localised tendon pain often confirmed by imaging findings. The pathophysiological cause of the pain is unknown and the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) may be implicated. Objective To review what is known regarding the role of the SNS in human tendinopathy. Study selection Published data describing sympathetic innervation or an index of sympathetic activity in human tendons were eligible for inclusion. Data sources Bibliographical databases (AMED, Biological Abstracts, CINAHL Plus, EMBASE, MEDLINE, Scopus, SPORTDiscus and Web of Science) were searched for relevant
articles. AZD1390 price Reference lists from included articles were screened for additional articles. Study appraisal Studies were scored with a quality assessment tool to identify potential sources of bias. Each question had an explicit decision rule to guide assessment. Results Nine case-control and four cross-sectional studies examined
sympathetic innervation of tendons. There was evidence suggesting a lack of difference in sympathetic innervation learn more of tendon proper between tendinopathy biopsies and healthy controls. In contrast, the paratendinous tissue showed evidence of increased sympathetic innervation in painful tendons. The most notable increase in SNS markers was seen in abnormal tenocytes from painful tendons. Data from two studies were suitable for metaanalysis. These heterogeneous studies revealed no difference in sympathetic innervation between painful and painfree tendons. No studies recorded SNS activity in vivo. Conclusion Sympathetic innervation in painful tendons depends on tissue type. Abnormal tenocytes may have increased capacity for self-production of sympathetic neurotransmitters. Future insight may be gained by measuring global in vivo sympathetic drive in tendinopathy.”
“IntroductionHysterectomy is the most common major gynecologic operation, together Akt activity with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy
in the majority of women over the age of 45. AimTo investigate whether surgical menopause affects female sexual performance differently from natural menopause. MethodsThe study included 121 women who had undergone surgical menopause and 122 women who had undergone natural menopause. All the women had similar economic, sociocultural, and personal demographic profiles, had been postmenopausal for at least 1 year, and were between the ages of 45 and 65. The women were asked to complete a six-question survey of sexual performance parameters (sexual desire, coital frequency, arousal, orgasm frequency, dyspareunia, and vaginal lubrication). These sexual performance parameters were compared between the surgical and natural menopause groups.