How these complex,

How these complex, Dorsomorphin supplier experience-dependent neural responses emerge within the brain’s circuitry is not well

understood. The caudomedial mesopallium (CMM), a secondary auditory region in the songbird brain, contains neurons that respond to specific combinations of song components and respond preferentially to the songs that birds have learned to recognize. Here, we examine the transformation of these learned responses across a broader forebrain circuit that includes the caudolateral mesopallium (CLM), an auditory region that provides input to CMM. We recorded extracellular single-unit activity in CLM and CMM in European starlings trained to recognize sets of conspecific songs and compared multiple encoding properties of neurons between these regions. We find that the responses of CMM neurons are more selective between song components, convey more information about song components, and are more variable over repeated components than the responses of CLM neurons. While learning enhances neural encoding of song components in both regions, CMM neurons encode more PD173074 in vivo information about the learned categories associated with songs than do CLM neurons. Collectively,

these data suggest that CLM and CMM are part of a functional sensory hierarchy that is modified by learning to yield representations of natural vocal signals that are increasingly informative with respect to behavior.”
“Purpose: To investigate, in a prospective trial, the acute and chronic toxicity of patients with cervical cancer treated with surgery and postoperative intensity-modulated

radiotherapy (RT) delivered using helical tomotherapy, with or without the administration of concurrent chemotherapy.\n\nPatients and Methods: A total of 24 evaluable patients entered the study between March 2006 and August 2009. The indications for postoperative RT were tumor size, lymphovascular space invasion, and the depth of cervical stromal invasion in 15 patients; 9 patients underwent postoperative RT because of surgically positive lymph nodes. All patients underwent pelvic RT delivered with helical tomotherapy and intracavitary high-dose-rate brachytherapy. Treatment consisted of concurrent weekly selleck screening library platinum in 17, sequential carboplatin/Taxol in 1, and RT alone in 6. The patients were monitored for acute-and chronic toxicity using the Common Toxicity Criteria, version 3.0.\n\nResults: The median follow-up was 24 months (range, 4-49). At the last follow-up visit, 23 patients were alive and disease free. Of the 24 patients, 12 (50%) experienced acute Grade 3 gastrointestinal toxicity (anorexia in 5, diarrhea in 4, and nausea in 3). One patient developed acute Grade 4 genitourinary toxicity (vesicovaginal fistula). For patients treated with concurrent chemotherapy, the incidence of acute Grade 3 and 4 hematologic toxicity was 71% and 24%, respectively.

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