In the present work, two elicitors (SA and JA) and adsorbents (HP

In the present work, two elicitors (SA and JA) and adsorbents (HP2MGL) were introduced into the Vitis vinifera cell suspension Selleck SNX-5422 culture, and the results indicated that they could work synergistically to improve the production of trans-resveratrol (2666.7 mg L-1). Afterward, 1 mM [1-C-13]-L-phenylalanine (Phe) was added to bioproduce C-13-labeled trans-resveratrol with the C-13 enrichment from 35.7% at day 5 to 20.8% at day 10. Purification of the products by several chromatographic steps was reported, and the C-13 labeling position was verified using C-13 NMR. Our results

indicated that, in this case, the rate limiting step of production was the post-biosynthetic events rather than the biosynthesis in elicited culture.

Furthermore, our results suggested the importance of simultaneous optimization of biosynthetic pathways of metabolites and their post-biosynthetic steps toward achieving commercial plant cell culture. With the help of this technique, we could expect to do industrial scaling-up in a bioreactor to produce high amounts of the non-labeled and C-13-labeled trans-resveratrol in the near future. (c) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Relationships between plant invasion and the soil seed bank in highly diverse fire adapted mediterranean woodlands are poorly understood, yet critical for that ecosystem’s conservation. Within buy Z-DEVD-FMK Ricolinostat the biodiversity hotspot of southwest Australia we investigated the composition and diversity of the Banksia woodland soil seed bank in good condition (GC), medium condition (MC) and poor condition invaded by the South African perennial species Ehrharta calycina (PCe) and Pelorgonium capitatum (PCp). The investigation

assessed three questions: (1) Do soil seed banks of invaded sites have fewer germinants of native species and more germinants of introduced (non-native) species than sites with minimal invasion? (2) Do soil seed banks show shifts in ecological functional types with invasion? (3) Is the soil seed bank of introduced species persistent? Native species germinants, mainly shrubs and perennial herbs, were highest in GC sites and least in poorer condition sites suggesting a reduction in their numbers had occurred over time. Introduced germinants were dominated by perennial and annual grasses, and annual herbs. E. calycina had the greatest seed density (8328 germinants m 2). More introduced than native germinants occurred in the litter. Rapid germination of introduced species (30% in week 1) compared to native species (4% in week 1) provides the capacity for their early dominance. A limited native soil seed bank and dominant persistent introduced soil seed bank represent great challenges for the structural and functional conservation and restoration of woodland ecosystems.

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