It is known that external acuminate condylomata are typically ben

It is known that external acuminate condylomata are typically benign lesions with a low risk of progression to invasive cancer but represent a clinical marker of the risk of developing an HR HPV genotype-related malignant lesion in the anal canal [19]. In fact, in our study of HIV-infected men without a known history of anal condylomata, having anal condylomata was associated with a higher prevalence of high-grade cytological lesions in the anal canal. This finding is in agreement with that of another study [9]. Furthermore, results from a study of

a large urban population of MSM with condylomata requiring MLN2238 ic50 surgical excision showed that these patients had a high frequency of occult high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia or anal squamous cell cancer [24]. These results highlight the need for regular monitoring and screening of these at-risk patients. Two important limitations need to be considered in the interpretation of the results of this cross-sectional study. Firstly, because the results were based on anal cytological diagnosis, there could be an underestimation or overestimation of the actual pathology. Secondly, there were a low number of patients (13 out of 157) presenting anal condylomata exclusively in the perianal

area. This means that it is difficult to establish with certainty an association between the development of high-grade lesions and the anatomical Cell Cycle inhibitor location of the condylomatous lesion. In summary, MSM presented the highest risk of anal condylomata, although the prevalence of anal condylomata in heterosexual men was also high. HIV-infected men with anal condylomatous selleck products lesions were at high risk of having high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions and harbouring multiple HPV infections involving HR HPV types in the anal canal in comparison to HIV-infected men without condylomata. These data emphasize the importance

of screening and follow-up of condylomata in the anal canal in HIV-infected men. We would especially like to thank the male patients attending our HIV Unit, and the HIV-HPV Study Group: Ms I. Fernández (Department of Proctology), Drs E. Castella and M. LLatjós (Department of Pathology), Dr A. Bonjoch, Dr P. Echevarría, Dr M. Jabaloyas, Dr A. Jou, Dr J. M. Llibre, Dr J. Moltó, Dr E. Negredo, Ms N. Pérez-Alvarez, Dr C. Rey-Joly, Dr J. Romeu, Dr J. R. Santos and Dr C. Tural (HIV Clinical Unit and Internal Medicine Department), and Ms C. Alcalde, Ms R. Guerola and Ms A. Salas (nurses of the HIV Clinical Unit), University Hospital Germans Trias i Pujol, Badalona (Barcelona), Autonomous University of Barcelona, Barcelona; Ms I. Castilla, Dr V. Cirigliano, Dr M. Ejarque, Ms E. López, Ms E. Ordóñez and Ms L. Rueda, General Lab, Department of Molecular Biology, Barcelona, Spain.

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