Pharm World Sci 23:148–152PubMedCrossRef 39 Lorefalt B, Toss G,

Pharm World Sci 23:148–152PubMedCrossRef 39. Lorefalt B, Toss G, Granerus AK (2007) Bone mass in elderly patients with Parkinson’s

disease. Acta Neurol Scand 116:248–254PubMedCrossRef 40. Cauley JA, Fullman RL, Stone KL, Zmuda JM, Bauer DC, Barrett-Connor E, Ensrud K, Lau EM, Orwoll ES (2005) Factors associated with the lumbar spine and proximal femur bone mineral density in older men. Osteoporos Int 16:1525–1537PubMedCrossRef 41. Kanis JA, Johnell O, Oden A, Johansson H, De Laet C, Eisman JA, Fujiwara S, Kroger H, McCloskey EV, Mellstrom D, Melton LJ, Pols H, Reeve J, Silman A, Tenenhouse A (2005) Smoking and fracture risk: a meta-analysis. Osteoporos Int 16:155–162PubMedCrossRef 42. Powers KM, Kay DM, Factor SA, Zabetian CP, Higgins DS, Samii A, Nutt JG, Griffith A, Leis B, Roberts JW, Martinez ED, Montimurro JS, Checkoway H, Payami H (2008) Combined effects of smoking, RepSox mw coffee, and NSAIDs on Parkinson’s disease risk. Mov Disord 23:88–95PubMedCrossRef”
“Calcium supplements have been used for decades in the prevention

and, as an adjuvant, for treatment of osteoporosis because low calcium intakes are frequent and have negative effects on bone health. There is an abundant literature showing the beneficial effects of an adequate calcium intake on the maintenance of bone mineral density (BMD) in adults, and on the slowing of the loss of BMD in the elderly. There is even some evidence that it has a moderate effect on fracture risk. In other words, the prescription of calcium supplements in the prevention of osteoporosis has its place, in so far as it causes no Selleck Alpelisib harm. Although a very high intake of 3–4 g per day is not recommended,

there is no proof that such intakes are harmful. Hypercalciuria in kidney stone formers and gastrointestinal intolerance are the only well-known contraindications. Fractional calcium absorption decreases with higher intakes and protects the body from excess intake, at least in part. Indeed, calcium supplementation had no safety restrictions. The negative effects of calcium supplements listed in the ADAM7 recent report of the Institute of Medicine of the US [1] include kidney stones, milk-alkali syndrome and hypercalcemia with its various consequences. But the risk of renal stones is not confirmed [2], that of hypercalcemia is not documented, and as for provoking the rare milk-alkali syndrome, it needs more than just a calcium supplement. If the same strict scientific parameters were applied for assessing the upper tolerable intake level of calcium (or the buy Tozasertib lowest observed adverse effect level), as for assessing the positive effects of calcium supplements on bone, it would be impossible to define an upper safety limit. New information on the possibility of negative cardiovascular effects puts a cloud in the so far quiet sky of calcium supplementation. In the paper by I. Reid et al.

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