Results Metabolic phenotype of experimental animals Figure 1 summarizes the results of the weight and hormone changes in this study. Both HFD Ulixertinib solubility dmso groups were significantly heavier than their LFD counterparts, with the aHFD group being 52.7% heavier than the aLFD group and the yHFD group being 44.2% heavier than the yLFD group (p < 0.0001 CH5183284 manufacturer for both). Unsurprisingly, fat body mass (FBM) was 192% and 229% greater in adult and young HFD, respectively, compared to aLFD and yLFD (p < 0.0001). Lean body mass
(LBM) did change slightly (15% larger in both yHFD and aHFD compared to their respective age controls, p < 0.0001); this change was likely a contributing factor to the results observed. Fig. 1 Body composition, serum
see more leptin concentration, and IGF-I concentration. a Average weekly weights of LFD and HFD groups. Horizontal axis is progression of study in weeks; b young and f adult lean body mass; c young and g adult fat body mass for LFD and HFD groups at conclusion of study; d young and h adult serum leptin concentration (mean ± SE) at conclusion of study; e young and i adult serum IGF-I concentrations at the conclusion of study. Both lean body mass and fat body mass increased, but signficant increase in IGF-I concentration are only observed for the yHFD group. yLFD n = 15, yHFD n = 15, aLFD n = 13, aHFD n = 14 (** p < 0.01, *** p < 0.001) Blood glucose tests indicated that the obese groups were likely diabetic. Blood glucose levels in the obese
groups were double the levels in the low-fat fed groups (191.9 ± 41.1 mg/dl in aHFD vs. 99.4 ± 29.8 mg/dl in aLFD, p < 0.001; 187.7 ± 39.1 mg/dl in yHFD vs. 97.7 ± 16.3 mg/dl Phosphoribosylglycinamide formyltransferase in yLFD, p < 0.001). This result is also not surprising as the C57Bl/6 mouse strain is known to be susceptible to diabetes on high-fat diets. There was a 16% increase in the serum leptin concentration in aHFD vs. aLFD, and a 235% increase in yHFD vs. yLFD (p > 0.05). Although not significant due to large variations, the increasing trend in serum leptin concentration is in agreement with prior studies showing that serum levels of leptin increase with obesity. IGF-1 is well known to be associated with obesity as well as with greater bone size; therefore, serum IGF-1 levels were characterized in each experimental group. The insulin-like growth hormone IGF-I concentration was 145% larger in yHFD vs. yLFD (p < 0.01). Bone densitometry: bone mineral content but not density smaller with high-fat diet Figure 2 outlines the results of bone densitometry measurements performed using DXA scanning at the conclusion of the study. BMC was 12.5% lower for yHFD vs. yLFD, and a decreasing but non-significant trend was observed in the adult group as well. Whole-body areal BMD (aBMD) was unaffected in both age groups, as was femoral aBMD.