Therefore, I characterized the surrounding landscape using a SAHA HDAC suite of landscape metrics calculated from the available digital CORINE landcover data following their formulation in McGarigal and Marks (1995) (Table 1).
All the metrics were calculated for a buffer of 1.5 km from each side of the riparian zone because this was the average distance from the waterway to the top of the nearest hill. As a proxy for the effect of propagule connectivity (Li and Wu 2004), I assessed the potential impact of type of surrounding landscape (area of cork oak, holm oak, dry agriculture, irrigated agriculture and others), and for each of the land cover types its extent (patch size), configuration (number of patches), its degree of contact with the riparian area (edge density) and its shape complexity (area weighted mean shape index and area weighted mean fractal dimension). Further, to assess the effect of the presence of multiple surrounding landscapes on the seed sources
to surveyed patches in the riparian areas, the BI 10773 cell line landscape diversity index and landscape equitability were calculated using Shannon-Wiener (H’) and Simpson (D) diversity indexes, which account for both the abundance and evenness of landscape (Krebs 1998). The Shannon diversity
index emphasizes rare landscapes whereas the Simpson diversity index more heavily Phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase weights common landscapes. H’ GSK872 price varies between 0 to log(k), where k is the number of classes, and D varies from 0 to +∞. I also calculated the evenness of the landscapes using the Shannon’s equitability index (J’). Equitability assumes values between 0 and 1, with 1 being complete evenness in landscape composition and corresponds to samples receiving the maximum value of the Shannon-Wiener index. Landscape metrics were calculated using the “Patch Analyst v. 3.1” (Rempel and Carr 2003) extension for ArcView 3.2 (ESRI 1996). Finally, I made qualitative assessments of the degree of human presence through registering presence and absence of human activities (houses, livestock, hunting, farming, etc.), development (houses, fences and roads), and livestock along each transect (Table 1).