(C) 2010 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3493113]“
“Background: Phytosterol supplementation of 2 g/d is recommended by the National Cholesterol Education Program to reduce LDL cholesterol. However, the effects of different intakes of phytosterol on cholesterol metabolism are uncertain.
Objective: We evaluated the effects of 3 phytosterol intakes on whole-body cholesterol metabolism.
Design: In this placebo-controlled, SN-38 mw crossover feeding
trial, 18 adults received a phytosterol-deficient diet (50 mg phytosterols/2000 kcal) plus beverages supplemented with 0, 400, or 2000 mg phytosterols/d for 4 wk each, in random order. All meals were prepared in a metabolic kitchen; breakfast and dinner on weekdays were eaten on site. Primary outcomes were fecal cholesterol excretion and intestinal cholesterol absorption measured with stable-isotope tracers and serum lipoprotein concentrations.
Phytosterol intakes (diet plus supplements) averaged 59, 459, and 2059 mg/d during the 3 diet periods. Relative to the 59-mg diet, the 459-and 2059-mg phytosterol intakes significantly (P < 0.01) Elafibranor increased total fecal cholesterol excretion (36 +/- 6% and 74 +/- 10%, respectively) and biliary cholesterol excretion (38 +/- 7% and 77 +/- 12%, respectively) and reduced percentage intestinal cholesterol absorption (-10 +/- 1% and -25 +/- 3%, respectively). Serum LDL cholesterol declined significantly only with the highest phytosterol dose (-8.9 +/- 2.3%); a trend was observed with the 459-mg/d dose (-5.0 +/- 2.1%; P = 0.077).
Conclusions: Dietary phytosterols in moderate and high doses favorably alter whole-body cholesterol metabolism in a dose-dependent manner. A moderate phytosterol intake (459 mg/d) can be obtained in a healthy
diet without supplementation. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials. gov as NCT00860054. Am J Clin Nutr 2010; 91: 32-8.”
“O-antigen representing the O-polysaccharide chain of the lipopolysaccharide is the most variable constituent on the cell surface of Gram-negative bacteria and a player in their pathogenicity. The O-polysaccharide of Escherichia coli O109 was studied by sugar analysis and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and found to contain a rarely occurring monosaccharide, ACY-738 2,3-diacetamido-2,3,6-trideoxy-l-mannose (l-RhaNAc3NAc). The following structure of the tetrasaccharide repeating unit of the O-polysaccharide was established, which is closely related to that of Proteus penneri O66: <formula format=”"display”" id=”"mu1″”> <file name=”"fim_745_mu1.gif”" type=”"gif”"/>
The O-antigen gene cluster of E. coli O109 was sequenced and all 14 genes found were assigned functions based on their similarity to genes from the available databases. Putative genes for synthesis of l-RhaN3N were found in E. coli O109 and their homologues in E.