g , endoscopy) and therapeutic (e g , cholecystectomy) in both ad

g., endoscopy) and therapeutic (e.g., cholecystectomy) in both adults and children [15]. Even though CVS was not recognized by ED personnel even when patients already bore the diagnosis, the vast majority of all CVS patients received intravenous fluids, an appropriate intervention in patients

with dehydration from vomiting of any cause. However, we cannot tell from our results whether dextrose-containing fluids were used or not; this may be important Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical since dextrose-containing intravenous fluids may be therapeutic in the management of acute CVS episodes [11]. It is also encouraging that 80% of patients who presented to the ED with a protocol for acute management of CVS had their protocols followed. Unfortunately only a minority of patients had such care protocols from their physicians. This should prompt physicians who take care of CVS patients Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical to collaborate with ED physicians in establishing individualized protocols

for acute management of CVS episodes. Our patients with CVS had a substantial number of ED visits with high rates of utilization Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical of ED services. In addition to generating an enormous number of ED visits, these patients visited at least four separate EDs on average and this may be an attempt by the Stattic chemical structure patient to seek out effective medical care. Despite repeated visits, the majority of patients in this study were not referred to gastroenterologists. Inappropriate referrals or non-referrals can lead to further ED visits and also a significant delay in the institution of preventive therapy. The therapy of this disease is very similar to migraine headaches and includes preventive therapies (e.g. amitriptyline), abortive therapy with triptans and supportive strategies (intravenous hydration Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical and sedation) [18,19]. It has been shown that establishing a diagnosis and providing appropriate treatment has a good response in patients with CVS [15]. Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical The economic impact of individual ED visits is staggering and data from our institution indicate that there were 131 visits for CVS in the year 2008. With the cost of a single ED visit being US $2880, the cost of ED management of CVS in our hospital

alone would amounts to US $ 377,000 in one year. For cost-effective care it Dichloromethane dehalogenase is crucial that steps be taken to address this issue including education about CVS amongst ED personnel and the medical community and further research on newer therapies for CVS. Further efforts in this regard will not only alleviate patient suffering but can potentially transform into saving of hundreds of thousands of dollars. There are several important limitations of this study. First, all data are self-reported, and therefore subject to recall bias. While such information is reflective of the patient experience, details may not be completely accurate. For example, it is possible that ED personnel were aware of the diagnosis of CVS but may not have communicated this understanding to the patient or caregiver.

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