GDF3 inhibits bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling. Id1 is one of the transcription factors regulated by BMP signaling and its abnormal expression is observed in human cancers [27, 30, 31]. Therefore, we examined whether the GDF3 expression alters the Id1 expression; but no
changes in Id1 expression was observed (Figure 5A). Figure 5 (A) B16-F1 cells transfected with an empty vector or a GDF3-expressing vector. Twenty-four hours after the transfection total RNA was extracted and RT-qPCR was performed to measure the Id1 expression. “”N.S.”" stands for not statistically significant. (B, C) B16-F1 (B) or B16-F10 (C) cells were transfected with empty or GDF3-expressing vectors. Twenty-four hours after transfection cells were injected subcutaneously into C57BL/6 mice. Tumors were excised 7, 10, and 14 days after injection. Total Selleckchem FRAX597 RNA was extracted from tumors or cell from culture (day 0) and RT-PCR was performed. (D, E) B16-F10 cells were transfected with empty (D) or GDF3-expressing vectors (E) and 24 hours after the transfection cells were injected subcutaneously into C57BL/6 mice. The B16-F10 tumor was excised 7 days after injection. Cells were stained with a FITC-conjugated anti-CD24 antibody and a PE-conjugated anti-CD44 antibody. Cells were analyzed by FACS. One of three similar experiments is shown. ABCB5 is a marker of human melanoma CSCs, and CSCs with ABCB5
have a strong ability to generate tumors in xenotransplantation assays. Previously, Ning Gu and his colleagues showed that CD133-, CD44-, and CD24-positive B16-F10 cells JSH-23 show CSC-like feature and have strong ability to generate tumors . We examined the expression of CD133, CD44, CD24, and ABCB5 during tumorigenesis of B16 melanoma cells transfected with empty or GDF3-expressing
vectors. In B16-F1 cells, expression of ABCB5, CD44, and CD24 increased during tumorigenesis but CD133 expression was not observed at any time points (Figure 5B). Similar to B16-F1 cells, CD24 and CD44 expression increased during B16-F10 tumorigenesis but ABCB5 expression was not observed (Figure 5C). In contrast, CD133 expression was observed during B16-F10 tumorigenesis (Figure 5C). Production of GDF3 did not affect CD133, ABCB5, and CD44 expression. Dehydrogenase inhibitor However, CD24 expression was higher in GDF3-transfected next B16-F1 and B16-F10 cells compared to that of empty vector-transfected B16-F1 and B16-F10 cells (Figure 5B and 5C). These data indicate that GDF3 expression leads to increased CD24 mRNA expression or an increase in the fraction of cells expressing CD24 mRNA. Next, we performed FACS analysis to detect CD24- and CD44-positive cells. B16-F10 cells transfected with empty or GDF3-expressing vector were injected subcutaneously into C57BL/6 mice. Seven days after injection, the tumor was excised, and the tumor cells were stained with anti-CD24 and -CD44 antibodies.