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Competing interests The authors declare that they have no competing interests. Authors’ contributions JD and NY conceived and designed the experiments and wrote the paper. KL carried out ADAM7 the experiments and took part in writing the manuscript. XW and FL participated in the experiments. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.”
“Background Recently, carbon-based nanomaterials such as carbon nanotubes, graphene oxide, and graphene have been explored extensively by researchers as well as the industry. Graphene is an emerging nanomaterial which has greater scientific and commercial advantages. Recently, single-layer and few-layer graphenes received great interest due to its exceptional characteristics including high surface area as well as strong electronic, mechanical, thermal, and chemical properties in various fields such as materials science, physics, chemistry, biotechnology, and nanomedicine [1–3].