monocytogenes screened (21 of 30) and, on the basis of PCR amplification, in all cases the full complement of LIPI-3 genes was present. All such isolates originated from human, animal (including milk and feed) and sewage sources. When collated with data from previous studies, it is apparent that 63% (48 of 76) of lineage I isolates are LIPI-3 positive and may be capable of LLS production. All LIPI-3 positive isolates belonged to Lineage I as verified by an allele specific oligonucleotide PCR multiplex (actA1-f, actA1-r, plcB2-f, plcB2-r, actA3-f, plcB3-r) based this website on the prfA virulence gene cluster , thus verifying previous observations with respect to the distribution of LIPI-3 among
different evolutionary lineages of L. monocytogenes[7, 8]. Access to the Seeliger collection and other strains also facilitated a further investigation of the LIPI-3 status of L. innocua. As
stated, a previous analysis of 11 strains of L. innocua indicated that all lacked genes associated with LIPI-3 [7, 8]. However, screening a larger collection of 64 L. innocua strains using llsA specific primers revealed that 45 strains (70.3%) were llsA-positive (Table learn more 3). Further PCR-based analysis of these isolates, employing a variety of primers designed to amplify across and within the LIPI-3 (SBI-0206965 llsAFor, llsARev, 1113for, 1114rev, 1115rev, 1118rev, 1120rev, araCrev) revealed that 11 of these strains possess a cluster which is comparable in size, gene content and gene organisation to that of the LIPI-3 cluster found in a subset of lineage I L. monocytogenes strains. These 11 isolates originated from a number of European countries between 1984 and 2000, and were isolated from varied sources including processed chicken , cheese , sheep , silage  and human Protirelin  (Table 3). Further analysis revealed that 25 L. innocua isolates possess a truncated LIPI-3 with no PCR product generated for llsBYDP. Sequencing the region confirmed
that these genes are absent in at least two isolates (SLCC6270 and SLCC6382). With the exception of llsP, these genes have previously been found to be essential for LLS production in L. monocytogenes. Of the remaining 28 strains, 9 were found to contain llsA but attempts to amplify across or within other LIPI-3 associated genes were unsuccessful and another 19 isolates lacked all LIPI-3 genes. Two L. innocua isolates, SLCC6382 and SLCC6270, containing a truncated LIPI-3, were selected for further analysis. Both SLCC6382 and SLCC6270 shared 98% homology with respect to the structural peptide LlsA. The putative LlsG, LlsH and LlsX proteins from both strains shared 96%, 99% and 95% identity with their L. monocytogenes counterpart. llsB, llsY, llsD and llsP are absent from both isolates, while the AraC-like regulatory protein determinant was present with 98% identity to the L. monocytogenes cluster. As in L. monocytogenes, the L.