Moreover, there are unresolved disagreements in the literature, s

Moreover, there are unresolved disagreements in the literature, such as whether IL-6 levels in blood increase with age.47 This is likely due to the high variability observed amongst

older adults, which may be due to confounding co-morbidities, environmental effects, or temporal accumulation of changes. This would suggest that aging and immune aging in particular should be treated not as a single “natural disease,” but rather as either different phenotypic subsets or perhaps even to the degree of an individual personalized level. Indeed, a subpopulation of older adults has NLG919 research buy already been identified to possess an “immune risk Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical profile,” which is associated with an age above 85, persistent cytomegalovirus infection, loss of the CD28 co-stimulatory molecule on CD8+ T cells, and increased chances of mortality in longitudinal studies.48 Thus it seems likely that a functional immune system is important Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical to good health and a long lifespan. Indeed, gene expression studies of longevity in humans, comparing tissues from young and older adults, commonly identify an age association or differential expression of many immune-related genes. However, due to increased disease and inflammation with age, tissue from older adults often contains a higher proportion of lymphocytes, making the reliable identification Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical of age-associated immune system genes and pathways difficult.49 From an evolutionary perspective, the selective

pressure on lifespan is thought to cease not long after the age of reproduction. Thus the immune system may have

evolved for short-term effect rather than optimum protection throughout an organism’s lifespan. To date, the relationship between longevity and immunosenescence has not been explored in depth. Poor health in old age may be due to loss of immune Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical responsiveness, whereas extended lifespan may be associated with retaining the functionality of the immune system. The critical nature of the immune system for health and the high variation observed among older Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical adults would suggest that differences in immune system parameters (immune states) between GBA3 individuals have a significant role in determining disease susceptibility and outcome. The logic here is simple: The immune system is known to be important in a large variety of diseases and is suspected to be involved in many more. Thus if variation exists in the immune system, especially if that variation is large and is temporally stable, one would expect it to have an effect on the health of an individual and how he/she combats disease. High-resolution immune monitoring, as described here, appears to be perfectly poised to address the complexity of the immune system in general and the high variability observed in the elderly in particular. The strength comes from the comprehensive and integrated manner in which each individual is profiled and the high resolution each assay provides, coupled to standard clinical information.

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