Results and discussion Figure 1a,b shows the low- and high-magnification top-view SEM images of the undoped ZnO nanorods (labeled #1). The sample consists of straight nanorods with uniform diameter of about
200 nm. The uniform hexagonal nanorods are preferentially grown along  direction with smooth surface. Figure 1c,d shows the morphology of the ZnO NWs AR-13324 purchase doped with different In content. It can be seen clearly that the morphology and diameter have changed after In doping. These two samples have similar density and diameter, but the concentration of In dopant are quite different. The In content of the sample showed in Figure 1c (labeled #2) is too low to be detected by EDX, but can be measured by SIMS, as shown in Figure 1e. The ZnO NWs shown in Figure 1d (labeled #3) is heavily doped with In, and the average amount
of In in individual NW is about 1.4 at.%, as demonstrated by EDX in Figure 1f. Figure 1 SEM images and SIMS and EDX spectra. (a) Low and (b) high magnification SEM images of the undoped ZnO nanorods (#1). (c) SEM image and (e) SIMS spectrum of trace In-doped ZnO NWs (#2). (d) SEM image of high content In-doped ZnO NWs (#3). (f) EDX spectrum of individual NW in sample #3. X-ray diffraction was carried out to investigate the structure of the three samples. As shown in Figure 2, the patterns reveal that all the samples have hexagonal wurtzite ZnO structure and no extra peak is buy eFT-508 observed, except the Au (111) and Au (200) peaks, indicating Adenylyl cyclase that no secondary phase exists in all of the three samples. The results suggest the successful incorporation of In into ZnO lattice without altering the crystal structure. Figure 2 XRD patterns of ZnO NWs. Full AG-881 datasheet pattern of undoped (#1) and In-doped (#2, #3) ZnO NWs. No secondary phase is observed in all of the three
samples. In order to further investigate the microstructure of the In-doped samples, TEM and SAED measurements have been carried out over individual In-doped ZnO NW, as shown in Figure 3a,b,c,d,e,f. Significant variation in surface morphology is seen for these two samples. Figure 3a shows the general morphology of the trace In-doped ZnO NWs (#2). It is observed that the NWs in sample #2 have smooth surface with a uniform diameter of about 150 nm. Its HRTEM image (Figure 3b) and corresponding SAED pattern (inset in Figure 3a) reveal a perfect single-crystalline wurtzite ZnO with orientation of [10 0]. The interplanar distance of fringes is measured to be 0.283 nm, which matches well with the value for (10 0) planes in wurtzite ZnO. Figure 3c,d shows that the surface of the high-content In-doped ZnO NWs (#3) has ripple-like edges, which is much rougher than that of sample #2, and its diameter is about 150 nm.