thermocellum DSM 4150 CtherDRAFT_2943
CtherDRAFT_0414-0417 CtherDRAFT_2234 CtherDRAFT_1182-1185 CtherDRAFT_1311 Ta. pseudethanolicus 39E Teth39_1997 Teth39_0289 Teth39_1842 G. thermoglucosidasius C56-YS93 Geoth_3351 Geoth_0237-0239 Geoth_3895 Geoth_1595-1597 Geoth_2366-2368 Geoth_2479-2480 Geoth_2860-2863 ABT-888 in vivo B.cereus ATCC 14579 BC1924 BC3970-3973 BC0491 BC4870 BC4996 Abbreviations: ldh, lactate dehydrogenase; pdh, pyruvate dehydrogenase; pfor, pyruvate:ferredoxin find more oxidoreductase; pfl, pyruvate formate lyase. LDH is, in fact, allosterically activated by fructose-1,6-bisphosphate in C. thermocellum ATCC 27405, Ca. saccharolyticus, and Thermoanaerobacter brockii[56, 57, 62, 80]. While enzyme assays reveal high LDH activity in C. thermocellum[10, 72], most studies report only trace amounts of lactate. Islam et al. , however, demonstrated that lactate production was triggered in stationary-phase batch cultures only under excess cellobiose conditions. In Thermoanaerobacter brockii, Ben-Bassat et al. reported elevated
lactate buy GSK2118436 production as a consequence of accumulated intracellular fructose-1,6-bisphosphate (FDP) when cultures were grown on glucose compared to starch . Finally, Willquist and van Niel  reported that LDH in Ca. saccharolyticus was activated by FDP and ATP, and inhibited by NAD+ and PPi. An increase in fructose-1,6-bisphosphate, NADH:NAD+ ratios, and ATP:PPi ratios was observed during the transition from exponential to stationary phase in Ca. saccharolyticus cultures, and was accordingly accompanied by lactate production . All organisms analyzed encode either pdh or pfor, but not both (Table 4). While G. thermoglucosidasius and B. cereus encode pdh, all other organisms analyzed encode pfor. Although
Caldicellulosiruptor, Clostridia, and Thermoanaerobacter species studied appear Atazanavir to encode a putative pdh, there has been no enzymatic evidence to support the presence of PDH in these species. Thus far, only PFOR activity has been verified in C. cellulolyticum[58, 60] and C. thermocellum[10, 72]. The putative E1, E2, and E3 subunits of the pdh complex (Csac_0874-0872) in Ca. saccharolyticus were designated simply as a keto-acid dehydrogenase by van de Werken et al. . Similarly, while genes encoding a putative pdh (Teth_0790-0793) are present in Ta. pseudethanolicus, genomic context strongly supports that this putative pdh is part of an acetoin dehydrogenase complex, despite the absence of reported acetoin production. In Clostridia species, putative pdh’s (Cthe_3449-3450, Cthe_1543) may actually encode 2-oxo acid dehydrogenase complexes, which share a common structure and homology to pyruvate dehydrogenase.