We characterized the cellular expression of HDACs 1-3, and HDACs 4 and 6, in the adult mouse brain in the cingulate cortex, parietal cortex, dentate gyrus, and CA1 regions of the hippocampus and subcortical white matter. Expression of class I HDACs showed a cell- and region-specific
pattern. Transient focal ischemia induced by temporary middle cerebral artery occlusion, or global ischemia induced by in vitro oxygen-glucose deprivation, altered the extent of HDAC expression in a region-and cell-specific manner. The pan-HDAC inhibitor, SAHA, reduced ischemia-induced alterations in HDACs. The results suggest that in addition to promoting epigenetic changes in transcriptional activity in the nucleus of neurons and glia, HDACs may also have non-transcriptional actions in axons and the distant processes of glial cells and may significantly modulate selleck the response to injury in a cell-and selleckchem region-specific manner.”
“The interaction of the PPAR gamma Pro12Ala polymorphism with diabetes and cardiovascular risk is controversial. We studied 173 women and 309 men in the observational CARDIPP trial in which determination of left ventricular mass, carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and
pulse wave velocity (PWV) were performed. Blood pressures were measured with 24-h ambulatory technique (ABP). Heterozygotes and homozygotes of Ala were defined as Ala in the analyses. Men with Ala-isoform displayed higher waist circumference (Ala: 107 +/- 14 cm, Pro: 104 +/- 11
cm, p = 0.045) and body weight (Ala: 95.7 +/- 18 kg, Pro: 91.6 +/- 14 kg, p = 0.042) Selleck Navitoclax than Pro-homozygotes. Men with ALA-isoform also showed higher systolic ABP levels (Ala: 134 +/- 15 mmHg, Pro: 130 +/- 14 mmHg, p = 0.004), whereas left ventricular mass index, IMT and PWV were unrelated to isoforms. In contrast, carotid-radial PWV was lower in women with the Ala-isoform (Ala: 7.9 +/- 1.0 m/s, Pro: 8.5 +/- 1.3 m/s, p = 0.01) and levels of apolipoprotein A1 were higher (Ala: 1.43 +/- 0.27 g/l, Pro: 1.35 +/- 0.17 g/l, p = 0.03). In conclusion, we found that men with type 2 diabetes having the Ala-isoform of PPAR gamma Pro12Ala had an unfavorable cardiovascular risk profile, whereas women with this isoform had lower carotid-radial PWV and higher apolipoprotein A1 levels suggesting a beneficial prognosis. These differences according to gender of the ALA isoform in type 2 diabetes deserve further attention.”
“Background: This study was conducted to show the reliability of fully automated quantification of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in balloon occlusion test (BOT) of the internal carotid artery (ICA). We also shows the usefulness of ratio of rCBF during BOT to rCBF at rest (BOT/rest ratio = rCBF during BOT/rCBF at rest) rather than asymmetry index (AI) during BOT (AI = occluded-side rCBF/contralateral rCBF).