We next assessed the ability of RBE to inhibit the intracellular

We next assessed the ability of RBE to inhibit the intracellular replication of Salmonella in MSIE cells (Figure 3B). After infection and incubation, extracellular bacteria were removed by washing and antibiotic treatment, and kept for 24 h with RBE. The 2 mg/ml dose of RBE reduced intracellular Salmonella replication by 30% (p < 0.05) in comparison to control. No direct effect of RBE on Salmonella

extracellular growth and replication was detected (data not shown). These results suggest that the rice bran extract contains bioactive compounds that block Salmonella entry into MSIE cells as well as inhibit intracellular Salmonella replication in in vitro model. Rice bran diet components and weight of selleck screening library animals Dietary rice bran intake did not significantly change the body weight of animals in the experimental and control groups throughout

the various studies (data not shown). The total lipid content of the Neptune rice variety is 13.8%; therefore we adjusted the amount of corn oil in the diets to equalize the total fat content in the control, 10% and 20% rice bran diets (Table 1). Also, various dietary components may act as substrates for the gut microflora, and for that reason the total amounts of starch and cellulose were adjusted to balance the macronutrient content across groups. Table 1 Composition of control (AIN93-M) and Rice Bran supplemented mice diets Constituents (g/kg) Control 10% RB 20% RB Casein 140 140 140 L-Cystine 1.8 1.8 1.8 Corn Starch 465.7 422.7 377.7 Maltodextrin 155 155 155 Sucrose 100 100 100 Corn Oil 40 19 0 Cellulose 50 29 8 Mineral Mix Selleckchem ATM Kinase Inhibitor Pomalidomide nmr 35 35 35 Vitamin Mix 10 10 10 Choline Bitartrate 2.5 2.5 2.5 TBHQ* 0.008 0.008 0.008 Rice Bran (RB) 0 100 200 *TBHQ- Tertiary butyl-hydroquinone Discussion In this study, we examined the ability of dietary rice bran to protect mice

against an oral challenge with Salmonella. Decreased Salmonella fecal shedding is a reliable marker for reduced susceptibility to infection [28–30] and was used herein to determine whether dietary rice bran supplementation reduced susceptibility to Salmonella infection. Fecal shedding of Salmonella from orally challenged mice fed 10 and 20% rice bran diets was significantly reduced as compared to control diet (Figure 1). Consistent with previous research, the highest number of fecal Salmonella in the control diet fed mice was observed on day 7, followed by a reduction in Salmonella numbers on days 8–13 (Figure 1) [28]. Salmonella fecal shedding in rice bran fed mice was consistently lower than control diet fed mice until day 9-post infection. We chose this mouse model of Salmonella infection over other models because the 129 S6/SvEvTac mice do not die from disseminated Salmonella infection due to presence of both functional copies of the nramp1 gene whereas other strains would die within 7–14 days of inoculation [28].

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