1.2. Naturally Occurring Anti-Glycan Cisplatin side effects antibodies Anti-glycan antibodies have been shown to be disease-specific, for instance in Crohn’s disease [19,20], rheumatoid arthritis , infections  and cancer [23,24,25]. These potential anti-glycan antibodies hold therefore
promise for disease-specific biomarkers and tumor markers for early cancer diagnostics. Moreover, antibodies against several tumor-associated carbohydrate antigens Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical (TACA) have consistently been observed in human sera [26,27,28]. Autoantibodies against TACA presumably develop early in carcinogenesis when TACA appear in pre-malignant and malignant lesions. With the help of sensitive novel high-throughput platforms, such as glycopeptide arrays, anti-TACA antibodies can be detected in sera long before the Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical antigen , and could provide a screening tool for early detection and prognostic assessment. Unfortunately, only a limited number of human anti-TACA antibodies have been evaluated for their significance in carcinogenesis. For example, an extensive study performed in patients with gastric, colon, rectal and Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical breast cancer revealed that anti-TACA antibodies of IgM subclass against five known cancer antigens bind to carbohydrates on tumor-specific receptors and contribute to apoptosis, possibly playing an immuno-surveillance role . In another study, naturally occurring antibodies
against certain gangliosides and glycosphingolipids have been correlated with improved survival in melanoma and were suggested for carbohydrate
vaccine design . Today, the new era of glycomics using microarray-based platforms allow the first insight into yet unknown interactions Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical of selleck inhibitor glycans and naturally occurring anti-glycan antibodies. 1.3. High-Throughput Technologies to Map Glycan-Antibody Interactions Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical Similar to protein research, the standard for investigations into anti-glycan antibodies is both custom-made [26,27,31,32,33,34,35] and commercial ELISA [36,37,38,39]. Glycans are usually bound to a carrier (BSA, polyacrylamide), forming glycoconjugates, which are attached non-covalently to a microplate surface. Despite cost-effectiveness the major disadvantage of conventional ELISA is low throughput. Based on former research technologies in transcriptomics and proteomics, glycan Entinostat microarrays are now new and promising tools allowing the simultaneous detection of glycan-protein interactions. Based on this technology, we have gained insight into endogenous biological processes, microbe-host interactions, and immune defense mechanisms. Since the introduction of the first glycan-based arrays [40,41] the number of platform variations have continuously increased (summarized in Table 1). The glycan-based arrays are usually incorporating a glycan library which could be constructed from chemically/enzymatically synthesized or natural glycans.