UV-visible spectra were recorded at a time interval of 5 min in the range of 200 to 700 nm. Results and discussion Green synthesis and the yield of catechin-AuNPs The color of the solution changed to purple upon reduction of Au3+ to Au0 by catechin (Figure 1). The characteristic surface plasmon resonance (SPR) band was observed at 553 nm, which indicated the successful synthesis of AuNPs. The reaction proceeded under ambient temperature (26°C) for 1 h,
which means the reaction was fast and required minimal energy as well as being eco-friendly. The reaction proceeded very rapidly, as indicated by the color becoming purple (which indicates the reduction of Au3+) within 1 min. Figure 1 UV-visible https://www.selleckchem.com/products/4egi-1.html spectra of catechin-AuNPs before and after the reaction at room temperature for 1 h. In general, the stability of tea SRT2104 purchase catechins is affected by temperature and pH [15, 16]. The thermal degradation of catechins is noticeable upon with an increase in temperature. Furthermore, tea catechins are very stable at pH levels less than 4, whereas the stability of catechins decreases in alkaline solutions. In terms of the stability point, the reaction conditions that were used in the present
research minimized the thermal and pH degradation of catechin, AZD8931 which may have facilitated the reaction. The pH of the HAuCl4 solution was less than 4, and no other reagents were added to adjust the pH. In addition, the reaction was performed under ambient temperature (26°C) without the input of any external energy. We determined the yield of the reaction by measuring the concentration of unreacted Au3+ using ICP-MS. After the sample was subjected to centrifugation, the purple color disappeared in the supernatant, which indicated that the
AuNPs were effectively separated from the unreacted Au3+. The yield was 99.1% indicating that the reaction occurred very efficient. HR-TEM images HR-TEM images generally provide information regarding the size, shape, and dispersion state of NPs. As illustrated in Figure 2, various shapes of AuNPs were synthesized, including spherical, PI-1840 triangular, pentagonal, hexagonal with nonequilateral edges, irregular, and urchin-like shapes. A high-magnification image of several AuNPs is presented in Figure 2B. All the AuNPs were surrounded by shells, which were also observed in the AFM and FE-SEM images. The width of the shells was measured to be 5.41 ± 0.21 nm from ten measurements taken from Figure 2B. A lattice fringe is clearly observed in Figure 2C, which indicates the crystalline nature of the synthesized AuNPs. In addition, the shell is also clearly observed in Figure 2C. Another interesting shape is the urchin-like shape observed in Figures 2D,E,F. The high-magnification image in Figure 2F clearly reveals the lattice fringes in the urchin-like shapes, which also confirms the crystalline nature of the AuNPs. The crystalline structure of the catechin-AuNPs will be further discussed in the HR-XRD section.