Of those, 21 transcripts remained after removing redundant isofor

Of those, 21 transcripts remained after removing redundant isoforms on the basis of their similarity at the amino acid level. Phylogenetic analysis of the deduced protein sequences of the 21 transcripts revealed that some transcripts were closely grouped with the three reported UGT proteins ( Fig. 6A). In particular, three transcripts, CP_comp126017, CP_comp142900, and CP_comp82124, showed much higher similarity to the reported UGT proteins than the other transcripts. Overall, the expression patterns of the 21 transcripts were similar between CP and CS, with the exception find more of CP_comp144124, which showed about two-fold higher expression in CP

(2.5 in CP vs. 1.3 in CS; Fig. 6B). To investigate the transcript expression differences between adventitious roots and primary roots, we compared 35,527 CP reference transcripts with 38,966 transcripts from 11-year-old ginseng primary roots, after assembly of 454 reads from the NCBI SRA database (accession no. SRX017443) [35]. When their sequence similarity was analyzed, 6,057 (17.0%) transcripts in adventitious roots and 6,354 (16.3%) in primary roots were found to be uniquely expressed. A total of 62,082 transcripts, 29,470 (83.0%) from adventitious roots and 32,612 (83.7%)

from primary roots, were commonly expressed. GO analysis of unique transcripts was performed to characterize their functional category. As shown in Fig. 7, more transcripts from adventitious roots were assigned GO terms than from normal roots. Overall, the proportion of Decitabine cell line GO assignment in adventitious root transcriptomes was two-fold higher than

that in normal roots, although the most frequent GO terms such as binding, response to other Reverse transcriptase organisms, and nuclear lumen were generally similar between both datasets. In particular, 11 out of 20 GO terms for biological processes had more transcripts in adventitious roots than in normal roots. Terms such as response to metal ion, transcription, multicellular organismal development, and reproductive developmental process showed more than eight-fold higher proportions compared to those in normal roots. By contrast, only two biological process terms, regulation of growth rate and response to stress, accounted for higher proportions in normal roots than in adventitious roots. Transcriptome profiling using NGS technology, the so-called RNA-Seq, is one of the most efficient tools for gene discovery and various functional studies. Illumina transcriptome sequencing and assembly have been used successfully for several nonmodel organisms [36], [37], [38] and [39], but transcriptome assembly has many challenges, including misassembled or chimeric contigs (i.e., assembled contigs containing reads from different transcripts [40]). Here, we describe a method to choose the best assembly result for both biologically and computationally meaningful results.

First, an iron binding reaction was performed to produce complexe

First, an iron binding reaction was performed to produce complexes. Hydrolysates (fractions <5 kDa) with 1% (w/v) in protein content, pH adjusted to 5.5, were mixed with iron as FeSO4(s) 0.1% (w/v), both in aqueous solution. Incubation was performed in a shaking water bath for 30 min at 40 °C. Then, the solution was diluted 1:50 (v/v) in milli-Q water and dialyzed during 48 h at 26 °C, against milli-Q water, for the removal of free iron ions, using a Spectra/Por® dialysis membrane with Selleckchem XAV 939 a cut-off of 500 Da, (Spectrum Laboratories, Inc., CA, USA).

A blank without hydrolysates was run in parallel to samples and dialyzed. After dialysis, the retentate containing iron bound to peptides (complexes) was analysed for iron content by ICP. The percentage of iron binding capacity was calculated as: Iron binding capacity % = [iron content in complex (g)/total iron in solution before binding (g)]× 100. In vitro dialyzability was used to predict iron bioavailability

of hydrolysates (fraction <5 kDa). Dialyzability involves a two-stage (gastric and intestinal) simulated digestion and a dialysis. The procedure is similar to that described by Argyri, Birba, Miller, Komaitis, and Kapsokefalou (2009), a setup which allows the rapid and efficient application of the dialyzability method. The simulated gastrointestinal digestion occurs in six-well plates with inserts and Spectra/Por® dialysis membranes (cut-off of 6000–8000 Da) tightly held in place with elastic bands. The percentage of iron dialyzability was calculated as: [(dialyzable iron)/(total Everolimus iron)] × 100. Dialyzable iron was the iron that passed through the dialysis membrane during the in vitro digestion. Dialyzable iron was the iron content of the dialysate, and the total iron, the amount of iron added to the sample material prior to digesting (final concentration of 0.2 mM). A chromatographic column with IMAC Sepharose High Performance (IMAC-HP) resin (GE Healthcare Bio-Science AB, Sweden) installed why in a low pressure liquid chromatography system (FPLC) from Pharmacia

(Amersham Pharmacia Biotech) was used to separate the iron chelating peptides. The method of Lv et al. (2009) was followed with some modifications. A column was packed with IMAC-HP (10 mL) and charged with Fe3+ (5 mL of 200 mM FeCl3). After washing the unbound iron out of the column with milli-Q water (5 bed volumes), the nonspecific bound iron was removed with 50 mM sodium acetate-acetic acid buffer (NaAc/HAc), pH 3.6 (2–5 vol), and the column was equilibrated using the same buffer. Subsequently, 3 mL of yeast extract hydrolysate solution <5 kDa (20 mg/mL in protein content) was loaded onto the column. Peptides without affinity to immobilized iron in the column were eluted with the equilibration buffer (50 mM NaAc/HAc). Then, the bound peptides were eluted using 100 mM NH4H2PO4 solution, pH 4.5, and collected for further lyophilization. The absorbance of eluates was monitored at 280 nm.

Nowadays it is known that excesses of either n-6 or n-3 PUFAs sho

Nowadays it is known that excesses of either n-6 or n-3 PUFAs show immunosuppressive effects, and that maintenance of the immune response can be verified by administering LEs with n-6/n-3 FA ratios between 2:1 and 4:1 (Fan et al.,

2003 and Palombo et al., 1999). Soybean oil-based LEs show an n-6/n-3 FA ratio of about 7:1 (Horie, Torrinhas, Nardi, check details Waitzberg, & Falcão, 2007). SLs show metabolic advantages not provided by physical mixtures of different types of oil. They contain medium- and long-chain FAs on the same glycerol backbone, in contrast with the currently available ELs, which are a physical mixture of separate medium- and long-chain TAGs. One potential advantage of SLs is that they offer a broad choice of FAs in the composition of the TAGs. For example, soybean oil can be used to provide n-6 essential FAs, and FAs from fish oil can display anti-inflammatory effects and contribute to the structure of the central nervous system via their n-3 PUFAs. Due to its high concentration of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5, n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6, n-3), fish oil has been shown to have anti-inflammatory potential by interfering with the arachidonic acid pathway and producing the anti-inflammatory eicosanoids prostaglandin E3, leukotriene B5 and thromboxane A3 (Dudrick, Wilmore, Vars, & Rhoads, 1969). PUFAs from the n-3 family also

play a primary role in brain and retina development and DHA has a special role in visual and cerebral function this website in premature children, probably extending throughout their entire childhood (Innis, 2000), being incorporated Miconazole into the central nervous system during development of the infant brain (Hartvigsen, Mu, & Hoy, 2003). Many studies have investigated the lipase-catalysed interesterification for the production of n-3 PUFA-enriched fats (Fajardo et al., 2003 and Osório et al., 2001) and a number of procedures patented (Macrae and How, 1983, Matsuo et al., 1979 and Nakamura et al., 1987). Most

of these were kinetic studies on model reactions for acidolysis on a laboratory scale in the presence of organic solvents (Ghazali et al., 1995, Senanayake et al., 2002a, Soumanou et al., 1997 and Senanayake and Shahidi, 2002b). However, in these systems the recovery of the modified TAGs posed a separation problem. The aim of the present study was to model the production of SLs with n-6/n-3 ratios adequate for parenteral nutrition via response surface methodology (RSM), using lipase-catalysed acidolysis in solvent-free media. The process consists of a set of mathematical and statistical methods developed for modelling phenomena and finding combinations of a number of experimental factor variables that will lead to optimum responses. With RSM, several variables are tested simultaneously with a minimum number of trials, according to special experimental designs based on factorial designs (Box et al.

Of these 29 patients, only 2 patients receiving placebo and 1 pat

Of these 29 patients, only 2 patients receiving placebo and 1 patient receiving omecamtiv mecarbil in cohort 2 had ≥1-mm ST-segment depression CX-5461 during ETT3.

In the 1 patient taking omecamtiv mecarbil, time to the onset of 1-mm ST-segment depression during ETT3 (235 s) was somewhat shorter than ETT2 (311 s), which was new compared with ETT1 when the patient did not have ST-segment depression. Nineteen patients (20.2%) experienced 29 distinct treatment-emergent AEs (Table 3), including 17.2% on placebo, a 6.5% on omecamtiv mecarbil in cohort 1, and 35.3% on omecamtiv mecarbil in cohort 2. Of the 29 distinct AEs, 23 events were reported as mild in severity, 4 as moderate, and 2 as serious/severe (both occurring in the same patient [as discussed in the following section]). The investigators assessed 14 of the 29 AEs as not related to treatment, 8 of the 29 as possibly related to treatment, and 7 of the 29 as probably related to treatment. The majority of the AEs occurred during the infusion phase; in the oral dosing phase, only 4 AEs were reported (2 in patients on placebo and 2 in patients on

omecamtiv mecarbil). Although AEs were more frequent in cohort 2 for patients on omecamtiv mecarbil, in all but 2 patients they were mild in severity (1 patient with moderate photopsia and 1 patient described in the following section in more detail) and there was no consistent pattern in the types of AEs reported (Table 3, Online Table S4). All AEs had resolved by the end of the study. Two SAEs were reported selleck in 1 patient receiving omecamtiv mecarbil in cohort 2. After tolerating 18 h of omecamtiv mecarbil infusion without issue, in the last 2 hs of the infusion, the

patient underwent his third exercise test. He terminated ETT3 because of intolerable angina and ST-segment depression, which he also experienced during ETT2. The patient received nitroglycerin during the recovery period of ETT3, during which his symptoms resolved; he subsequently underwent coronary stent implantation for a severe proximal lesion in the left Y-27632 datasheet anterior descending artery. After stent implantation, the patient had a peak troponin I level of 2.45 ng/ml. The maximum plasma concentration of omecamtiv mecarbil for this patient was 651 ng/ml. The investigator reported SAEs of acute coronary syndrome and non–Q-wave myocardial infarction associated with percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty. The patient was discontinued from the study. No clinically meaningful changes in vital signs (systolic blood pressure/diastolic blood pressure, heart rate, respiratory rate, and oxygen saturation) or cardiac enzymes (troponin I, CPK-MB, and total creatine kinase) for any of the treatment groups were observed. Systolic blood pressure and heart rate data throughout the study are shown in Online Tables S5 and S6.

The response variables:

The response variables: Ponatinib species richness of aspen-dependent lichens, cyanolichens, spore-dispersed lichens, lichens sensitive to light and lichens adapted to open environments were also analyzed with the same model. Four environmental variables were used as covariates: stand area (ha), aspen diameter (cm), latitude and longitude. Interactions between each covariate and age-class were included in the full model. Subtracting the mean and dividing with the standard deviation standardized all variables. To get an estimate of how well the models

explained the data, we used an information-theoretic approach based on likelihood measures, in our case the Akaike information criterion (AIC; Akaike, 1974), and to correct for small sample sizes we used AICc. Several models were similar regarding their AICc value, making it difficult to select the best model. Consequently, to handle the problem with model selection uncertainty, we used model averaging (Burnham and Anderson, 2002) where all models within ΔAICc ⩽ 4 were weighted. This Akaike weight can be interpreted as the probability that a model is the best among the candidate models. Each variable included in at least one of the models got an average parameter estimate, based only on the models within ΔAICc ⩽ 4 where the parameter was present, with a confidence interval and

a relative importance. The relative variable importance is the probability that a variable will appear in the best model, and is based buy NVP-BEZ235 on the models’ Akakie weights (Whittingham et al., 2006). The analyses were conducted in the statistical software R v.2.12.1 (R Development Core Team, 2010) using the lme4 package (Bates et al., 2011) for the full model and the MuMIn package (Barton, 2012) for model averaging. We used indicator species analysis (ISA) to identify characteristic species of the age classes. ISA is based on a method by Dufrêne and Legendre (1997) that combine information on how often a species is present in a group and how unique it is to that group. A perfect 2-hydroxyphytanoyl-CoA lyase indicator is always and only present in one group. Statistical

significance is tested through Monte Carlo randomizations (McCune et al., 2002). PC-ORD version 5.31 (McCune and Mefford, 2006) was used for the analysis. Rarefaction curves based on trees as samples (Gotelli and Colwell, 2001), and estimators of total species richness (Magurran, 2004) were used to assess the size of the regional species pool. We used three non-parametric estimators since they are less sensitive to the underlying shape of the species-abundance distribution than parametric estimators (Magurran, 2004), (1) Chao 2 (Chao, 1984). (2) Jackknife 2 (Smith and van Belle, 1984), (3) Bootstrapping (Smith and van Belle, 1984). Calculations were made in EstimateS (Colwell, 2005). We found 195 species in total, 131 on trees exposed for 0–4 years and 182 on trees exposed for 10–16 years.

A similar series on Amazonian species is emerging from Manaus, Br

A similar series on Amazonian species is emerging from Manaus, Brazil ( INPA, 2014). However, it would be valuable to consolidate these and other resources on one web site under a general theme of ‘Tree seeds of the world’ so that ex situ conservation actions can be supported. Sources of information should include compendia of national and regional forest seed programmes. Target 8 Autophagy inhibitor libraries of the GSPC directs that approximately 75% of threatened plant species

be present in ex situ collections by 2020. This target can present particular challenges for mega-diverse countries, in terms of the scale of the task, the range of species for protection, and in the application of the most appropriate techniques and innovations, particularly for recalcitrant seeds Selleckchem PLX4032 ( Harding et al., 2013 and Walters et al., 2013). The lifespan of fully hydrated recalcitrant seeds is limited mainly by the extent to which they can be safely cooled. For both temperate and tropical species cooling is limited by the risk of ice formation and chilling stress, respectively. Thus in practice, storage can be close to 0 °C for temperate

recalcitrant seeds and 15 °C for tropical representatives on this functional trait. Generally under such conditions, lifespan is limited to a few months to rarely more than one year. Consequently, alternative conservation solutions are needed if the seeds of these species are to be conserved longer-term ex situ. Cryopreservation (usually storage below c. −130 °C, often in the vapour phase above liquid nitrogen) is the method of choice ( Li and Pritchard, 2009). However, as whole recalcitrant seeds tend to be large, the development of innovative approaches has mainly related to shoot tip and embryo (and embryonic axis) tissue preservation, followed by recovery in vitro. By reducing tissue mass, it is possible to control better the target MC for cryopreservation, and the cooling and warming phases of the process. The main development of the last

25 years in plant cryopreservation has been the improvement in vitrification methodologies, particularly encapsulation-dehydration (Fabre and Dereuddre, 1990) and the use of complex solutions of cryoprotectants that reduce the risk of ice formation in partially hydrated tissues during MRIP cooling and rewarming. These ‘plant vitrification solutions’ (PVS) combine cryoprotectants that vary in permeability, enable removal of cellular water, increase cell viscosity and alter the properties of any remaining water (Volk and Walters, 2006). PVS2 is the most commonly used cryoprotectant, consisting of 30% glycerol, 15% dimethyl sulfoxide and 15% ethylene glycol in Murashige and Skoog medium with 0.4 M sucrose (Sakai et al., 1990). Across the various compositions of vitrification solutions and methodological variations (i.e.

Each component was rated on a scale from 1 to 5 Items were score

Each component was rated on a scale from 1 to 5. Items were scored as a 1 if the component never occurred in that session, as a 2 if the component occurred at least once but not in an in-depth manner, as a 3 if it occurred several

times during the session and was covered at least once in a moderately in-depth manner, as a 4 if it occurred frequently and was covered in-depth, and as a 5 if it occurred with high frequency and was covered in considerable depth. The therapist was also rated with regard to overall adherence CAL-101 research buy to ACT principles as well as the overall competence of the therapist. Sessions 3 and 10 were rated for Participant 1, and Sessions 4 and 7 were rated for Participant 2. At least one of the rated ACT components was covered frequently in a very in-depth manner (i.e., received a rating of “5”) in each of the rated sessions. The means for each component over the rated sessions were as follows: creative hopelessness/workability = 4.00 BGB324 cell line (SD = .82), willingness/acceptance = 4.25 (SD = .96), defusion = 3.5 (SD = 1.29), values/goals = 2.25 (SD = .50),

committed action = 2.25 (SD = .50), and present-moment focus = 4.25 (SD = .50). Therapist overall adherence to the manual was also rated highly (M = 4.75; SD = .50) as well as therapist overall competence (M = 4.25; SD = .50). The therapist was also rated on use of techniques antithetical to an ACT intervention, including challenging cognitions, experiential avoidant change strategies, using a cognitive therapy rationale, and encouraging the idea that thoughts and feelings cause actions. Each

of these items was rated as a 1 across participants, indicating that none of these interventions were observed in any rated sessions. The primary dependent variable was participants’ daily self-monitored binge eating. The baseline phase, treatment phase, and follow-up phases of treatment are presented in Figure 1. Additionally, problematic eating and related outcome variables at pretreatment, Racecadotril midpoint, posttreatment, and 3-month follow-up are presented in Table 2 and Table 3. The average number of self-reported binge eating for Participant 1 was 3.0 times per week during the pretreatment period (see Table 2), which is consistent with the criteria for BED. Within the first 2 weeks of the intervention, the average number of binge eating decreased to approximately 1.5 times per week. Throughout the course of the 10-week ACT intervention, Participant 1 engaged in a total of only 5 episodes of binge eating. Her average number of binge eating episodes during the ACT intervention was .5 per week. Participant 1 did not report any episodes of binge eating at 3-month follow-up. The reduction in binge eating paralleled improvement in body image flexibility. Participant 1’s pretreatment level of body image flexibility (BI-AAQ) was 41.

WNV can cause poliomyelitis-like illness or acute flaccid paralys

WNV can cause poliomyelitis-like illness or acute flaccid paralysis in WNV-infected

persons, which is histologically confirmed in the grey matter of the anterior spinal cord and in the brainstem of postmortem tissues (Doron et al., 2003, Fratkin et al., 2004, Jeha et al., 2003, Sejvar AG-014699 molecular weight et al., 2005 and Sejvar et al., 2003b). Similar histopathology occurs in WNV-infected hamsters (Morrey et al., 2008b, Samuel et al., 2007, Siddharthan et al., 2009 and Xiao et al., 2001) and mice (Hunsperger and Roehrig, 2006) where the ventral cord has lymphocytic infiltration, perivascular cuffing, and neurophagia. Similar signs are documented with nearly all flavivirus encephalitides, i.e., Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) (Johnson, 1987), tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) virus (Gelpi et al., 2005), and the murine Modoc virus (Leyssen et al., 2003). Observing histopathological changes in the central nervous system (CNS), however, does not necessarily cause or indicate the types of neurological deficits. For example, the spinal cord functions are vast and diverse, where the cord acts as a conduit for descending motor functions, as a conduit for ascending

sensory information, and as a center for coordinating sensory/motor reflexes. Essentially, it is a conduit between the brain and nearly all other body functions. Therefore, histopathological damage to the spinal cord by WNV could affect a wide range of neurological disease phenotypes. Since WNV clearly causes motor function deficits in selleck inhibitor human subjects, human clinical procedures employed for evaluating WNND and other motor diseases have been adapted for measurement of motor functions in rodents infected with WNV. In neurodegenerative diseases such as poliomyelitis (Ohka and Nomoto, 2001) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (Rashidipour and Chan, 2008 and Shefner et al., 2006), the loss of motor neurons can be clinically detected by using electrophysiological motor unit

number estimation (MUNE) (Dantes and McComas, 1991), where a motor unit consists of a motor neuron and all its associated muscle fibers. Since a presumptive use of MUNE in the Florfenicol human WNV infection appears to be a possible marker for muscle weakness and clinical recovery (Cao et al., 2005), the MUNE procedure was adapted for use in hamsters (Siddharthan et al., 2009). To perform the MUNE procedure, the rostral sciatic nerve is stimulated with incremental increases of voltage. The resulting M-wave depolarization and polarization voltages are recorded at the plantar aspect of the hind limb. As the stimulus is increased, more motor units are recruited or activated. The increased activation of motor units is detected by incremental jumps in the amplitude of the M-wave. The more incremental jumps that are detected, the more motor units the animal possesses.

Our preliminary modelling and experimental work reveals that wher

Our preliminary modelling and experimental work reveals that where ventilatory inhomogeneity exists, the determined variables appear to be dependent on the period. The degree

of period dependency is likely to provide a robust index of ventilatory heterogeneity, and this will be developed in future work. Oxygen is used as an indicator gas in these studies. It is assumed that oxygen behaves much like an insoluble inert gas with respect to the diminution of the amplitude of its sinusoidal inspired concentration Selleckchem IPI 145 within the alveolar compartment. This is because in this analysis it is only the oscillatory components of the indicator concentration signal which is required for the analysis. The static or “DC” component of the signal can then be neglected. This was described in detail by Hahn (1996). The effect is independent of arterial oxyhaemoglobin saturation and concentration and there is no recirculation of the oscillatory signal in the venous blood. Fig. 3(a)–(c) shows the estimates for V  A, Q˙P, and V  D obtained using the continuous ventilation and the tidal ventilation

model at different forcing periods. learn more It can be seen that the estimates of Q˙P obtained using both the continuous ventilation model and the tidal ventilation model are similar for all forcing sinusoidal periods T = 2, 3, 4, 5 min. Similar behaviour can be observed in the estimates of VA at T = 2, 3, 4 min where the estimates of VA are close to the expected value, but VA estimates differ from expected values when T = 5 min. This may be due either to potential artifact from “venous recirculation”, or to the fact that the recovered values become frequency dependent if real data from inhomogeneously ventilated lungs are analysed in a single compartment model. The consistency of the results using both the continuous ventilation model and the tidal ventilation model for 2 ≤ T ≤ 4 suggests that this range is suitable for the forcing sinusoid. For both the continuous ventilation not model and the tidal ventilation model, VD is calculated by the proposed regression method using both CO2 and NO2 as described

in Section  4. The results of VD estimation are the same for both models, and are close to the expected value (0.25 L), indicating that the proposed improved Bohr equation method produces stable estimation of VD. However, we note that the estimated values of Q˙P appear smaller that the expected value of Q˙P of the volunteer (4.5 L/min). One possible reason is that the effect of “venous recirculation” of the N2O still exists to some degree, whereas both the continuous ventilation model and the tidal ventilation model assume that it is negligible. Another possible reason is that the equilibrium between the arterial and venous blood had not yet been established during the data collection, although nitrous oxide has low blood and tissue solubility.

2 km upstream (Fig 2) A major flood occurred in 1913 shortly af

2 km upstream (Fig. 2). A major flood occurred in 1913 shortly after the construction of the dam. Although this flood did not damage the Gorge Dam, further upstream, the Le Fever Dam failed (Raub, GW3965 1984 and Whitman et al., 2010, p. 62, 64). The Northern Ohio Power and Light Company (later the Ohio Edison Company, and now First Energy Corporation) coal-fired power plant was in operation from 1912 to 1991 and was removed in 2009. When it began operation it produced 27,000 kW

of electricity and burned 91,000 tonnes of coal per year (Whitman et al., 2010, p. 80). The coal-fired power plant was enlarged and modified in 1930, 1940, and 1960. The Gorge Hydro Generating Station was in operation between 1915 and 1958 and was removed in 1977 (Whitman et al., 2010, p. 85). From 2005 to 2009, the Metro Parks, Serving

Summit County and Metro Hydroelectric Co. LLC were in legal proceedings regarding the construction of new hydroelectric facilities at the Gorge Dam (Vradenburg, 2012). The new construction plans have ended and currently the Ohio EPA is investigating removing both the dam pool sediment and the dam as a means of river restoration (Vradenburg, 2012). The removal of the Gorge Dam fits within a larger restoration effort of the Cuyahoga River in which the Munroe Falls and Kent Dams have already been removed (Tuckerman and buy Ribociclib Zawiski, 2007). About 23.2 km upstream from the Gorge Dam, the Lake Rockwell Dam was constructed in 1913 to provide water to the

City of Akron (U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, 2008). Thus, the Gorge Dam pool functions as a sediment trap of the 337 km2 Middle Cuyahoga Watershed but not the Cediranib (AZD2171) Upper Cuyahoga Watershed (Fig. 1). Within the Middle Cuyahoga watershed there are other small dams on the Cuyahoga River. Going upstream of the Gorge Dam, the Sheraton (2.6 km), Le Fever (3.1 km), Munroe Falls (8.5 km) and Kent (16.4 km) Dams were all in place before the Gorge Dam was constructed. The Le Fever and Munroe Falls Dams trapped fluvial sediment in the slack-water margins and had deep-water channels with little to no sediment accumulation (Peck et al., 2007 and Kasper, 2010). Hence, the Le Fever and Munroe Falls Dams allowed some sediment to travel farther downstream to the Gorge Dam pool. Because the Sheraton and Kent dam pools were confined to narrow bedrock channels with high velocity flows, they do not contain significant sediment deposits. In 2004 and 2005 the Kent Dam was altered to restore flow, and the Munroe Falls Dam was removed. Twelve modified-Livingstone piston cores were collected from the Gorge Dam pool in May and September, 2011 (Fig. 2). Nine of the 12 cores reached bedrock, and detailed information about each core and subsequent analyses can be found in Mann (2012). The cores are archived in the Department of Geosciences at the University of Akron.