First, when the dip-coated NW sample is dried at 25°C for 0.4 h (highest amount of residual solvent), a Co3O4 NP-chain morphology is formed on the CuO NWs after flame annealing (Figure 1d). Second, the longer drying duration of 22 h at 25°C leads to a smaller amount of residual solvent, and a monolayer coating of Co3O4 NPs is formed after flame annealing (Figure 1e). Third, the amount of residual solvent is minimized by drying at 130°C, which is higher than the boiling temperature of acetic acid (118°C) but is lower than the decomposition temperature
of cobalt acetate (230°C) to avoid precursor decomposition . In this case, no particles are observed at all, but instead, a conformal and dense layer of Co3O4 is coated onto CuO NWs (Figure 1f). In order to confirm the importance of the residual solvent, we reapply the solvent acetic acid by drop casting to the dip-coated NW that has been dried for 1.5 h at 130°C, and then air learn more dry the NW again at 25°C for 0.4 h, and the NP-chain morphology is formed after flame annealing. These results clearly indicate that the amount of the residual click here solvent in the precursor coating layer (Figure 1c) before flame annealing has a strong impact on the final morphology of Co3O4 on the CuO NWs. A larger amount of residual solvent leads to the formation of the NP-chain morphology,
and a smaller amount of residual solvent leads to the formation of shells, or equivalently a thin film coating. The formation of the NP-chain morphology is due to the generation of gases by the evaporation and combustion of the coated check details solution on the CuO NWs during flame annealing, which induces a gas flow (i.e., Stefan flow) . The above results suggest that most of the gas flow comes from the evaporation and combustion of the residual solvent rather than from the cobalt salt inside the
cobalt precursor solution. To investigate the effect of solvent on the morphology of Co3O4, we select another solvent, propionic acid, to compare with acetic acid. For both solvents, the dip-coated NW samples are dried for 0.4 h at 25°C Reverse transcriptase to leave a large amount of solvent on the CuO NWs before flame annealing. It is assumed that a similar amount of cobalt precursor is left on CuO NWs after drying, in each case. The use of propionic acid leads to longer NP-chains (Figure 2b) and smaller average NP size (Figure 2c) than does the use of acetic acid (Figure 2a). The length of the NP-chains increases with increasing velocity (v) of the gas flow which carries the cobalt acetate precursor away from the CuO NWs as it forms NPs. The induced gas velocity is determined by the mass flux ( ) of the evaporated solution and the density (ρ) of the solution vapor as . The mass flux ( ) of the evaporated solution depends most strongly on the temperature of solvent combustion, and the density (ρ) of the solution vapor is inversely proportional to the temperature of solvent combustion.