gambiae and A. funestus mosquitoes caught in Kenya and Mali . Jadin et al. (1966) identified Pseudomonas sp. in the midgut of mosquitoes from the Democratic Republic of the Congo .
Gonzalez-Ceron et al. (2003) isolated various Enterobacter and Serratia sp. from Anopheles albimanus mosquitoes captured in southern Mexico . Recently, field-captured A. gambiae mosquitoes in a Kenyan village were Caspase Inhibitor VI in vitro reported to consistently associate with a Thorsellia anophelis lineage that was also detected in the surface microlayer of rice paddies . The microbial flora associated with Anopheles darlingi, a major Neotropical malaria vector, was found to be closely related to other vector mosquitoes, including Aeromonas, Pantoea and Pseudomonas species. Laboratory-reared A. stephensi has been reported to stably associate with bacteria of the genus Asaia . The successful colonization of Serratia marcescens in laboratory-bred A. stephensi has also been established . However, it should be emphasized that microbial studies of the midgut of Anopheles are scarce, and have depended mainly on traditional culture-based techniques [9, 10, 12]. In A. gambiae, few studies have combined culture and PCR-based approaches to characterize gut associated bacteria . Therefore, Selleck Go6983 the application
of “”culture-dependent and culture- independent”" based tools, such as 16S rRNA gene sequencing and metagenomics, to study these systems are highly desirable. 16S rRNA gene sequencing and metagenomics, have been primarily responsible in revealing the status of our lack of knowledge Fludarabine solubility dmso of microbial world such that half of the bacterial phyla recognized so far consist largely of these as yet uncultured bacteria . It also provides, an idea of species richness (number of 16S rRNA gene fragments from a sample) and relative abundance (structure or evenness), which reflect relative pressure that shape diversity within
biological communities . There is current interest in the use of microorganisms as biological control agents of vector-borne diseases [19–21]. Microorganisms associated with vectors could exert a BAY 11-7082 research buy direct pathogenic effect on the host by interfering with its reproduction or reduce vector competence [22–25]. In laboratory-raised insects, the bacteria in the midgut can be acquired both transstadially and through contaminated sugar solutions and bloodmeals. In wild populations, however, the origin of the midgut bacteria, are still unknown [9, 10, 26, 27]. An understanding of the microbial community structure of the mosquito midgut is necessary, which will enable us to identify the organisms that play significant roles in the maintenance of these communities. To understand the bacterial diversity and to identify bacterial candidates for a paratransgenic mosquito, we conducted a screen for midgut bacteria from lab-reared and wild-caught A.