gambiae and A funestus mosquitoes caught in Kenya and Mali [10]

gambiae and A. funestus mosquitoes caught in Kenya and Mali [10]. Jadin et al. (1966) identified Pseudomonas sp. in the midgut of mosquitoes from the Democratic Republic of the Congo [11].

Gonzalez-Ceron et al. (2003) isolated various Enterobacter and Serratia sp. from Anopheles albimanus mosquitoes captured in southern Mexico [12]. Recently, field-captured A. gambiae mosquitoes in a Kenyan village were Caspase Inhibitor VI in vitro reported to consistently associate with a Thorsellia anophelis lineage that was also detected in the surface microlayer of rice paddies [13]. The microbial flora associated with Anopheles darlingi, a major Neotropical malaria vector, was found to be closely related to other vector mosquitoes, including Aeromonas, Pantoea and Pseudomonas species. Laboratory-reared A. stephensi has been reported to stably associate with bacteria of the genus Asaia [14]. The successful colonization of Serratia marcescens in laboratory-bred A. stephensi has also been established [15]. However, it should be emphasized that microbial studies of the midgut of Anopheles are scarce, and have depended mainly on traditional culture-based techniques [9, 10, 12]. In A. gambiae, few studies have combined culture and PCR-based approaches to characterize gut associated bacteria [16]. Therefore, Selleck Go6983 the application

of “”culture-dependent and culture- independent”" based tools, such as 16S rRNA gene sequencing and metagenomics, to study these systems are highly desirable. 16S rRNA gene sequencing and metagenomics, have been primarily responsible in revealing the status of our lack of knowledge Fludarabine solubility dmso of microbial world such that half of the bacterial phyla recognized so far consist largely of these as yet uncultured bacteria [17]. It also provides, an idea of species richness (number of 16S rRNA gene fragments from a sample) and relative abundance (structure or evenness), which reflect relative pressure that shape diversity within

biological communities [18]. There is current interest in the use of microorganisms as biological control agents of vector-borne diseases [19–21]. Microorganisms associated with vectors could exert a BAY 11-7082 research buy direct pathogenic effect on the host by interfering with its reproduction or reduce vector competence [22–25]. In laboratory-raised insects, the bacteria in the midgut can be acquired both transstadially and through contaminated sugar solutions and bloodmeals. In wild populations, however, the origin of the midgut bacteria, are still unknown [9, 10, 26, 27]. An understanding of the microbial community structure of the mosquito midgut is necessary, which will enable us to identify the organisms that play significant roles in the maintenance of these communities. To understand the bacterial diversity and to identify bacterial candidates for a paratransgenic mosquito, we conducted a screen for midgut bacteria from lab-reared and wild-caught A.

The idea of constructing a database that stores information on en

The idea of constructing a database that stores SP600125 ic50 information on enzybiotics arose from our own research experience. We found that we constantly had to query information on enzybiotics from public databases, such as UniProt, and scientific literature. Thus, we decided to construct a database that simplified our research

efforts, and comprehensively collected this information. EnzyBase, a novel and original database for enzybiotics studies, was developed and currently contains 1144 enzybiotics from 216 natural sources. This database provides a platform for current users to comprehensively and conveniently research enzybiotics and can be PND-1186 order useful for exploring and designing novel enzybiotics for medical use. Construction

and content EnzyBase was built Selleckchem KPT-8602 on an Apache HTTP Server (V2.2.14) with PHP (V5.2.13) and MySQL Server (V5.1.40) as the back-end, and Personal Home Page (PHP), HyperText Markup Language (HTML) and Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) as the front-end. Apache, MySQL, and PHP were preferred as they are open-source software and platform independent, respectively, making them suitable for academic use. The web server and all parts of the database are hosted at Information Office of Fudan University, Shanghai, China. All enzybiotic sequences were collected manually from the annotated UniProt/Swiss-Prot database or scientific literature. Each enzybiotic without the UniProt link had been excluded. The enzybiotics collected in EnzyBase database are primarily from natural sources, with the exception of genetically-modified sequences. Additional physicochemical Calpain data of each enzybiotic was either calculated via Bioperl programs or identified from scientific literature via a PubMed search. All of the collected information was classified and filled into six relational tables in MySQL. For each enzybiotic, a unique identification number (i.e., enzy id)

was assigned, beginning with the prefix EN. Each entry also contains general data, such as protein name, protein full name, producer organism, simple function annotation and protein sequence, domains, 3D structure, and relevant references. For all proteins that already exist in the UniProt, Interpro [31], and/or PDB [32] databases, hyperlinks to these databases were created in EnzyBase. Additional physicochemical data, including calculated isoelectric point (pI) and charge at pI, are also provided. Moreover, minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) are included, if data are available. The BlastP program (BLASTP V2.2.25+) [33, 34] was used for sequence homology searches against EnzyBase. Utility and discussion Database description EnzyBase supplies a user-friendly web interface, so that users can easily query and retrieve information on enzybiotics.

Thus, when a case of legionellosis is

Thus, when a case of legionellosis is recognized others may become infected from the same source if appropriate control measures are not taken

to reduce the risk of further transmission. The source of the outbreak or incident can be determined by epidemiological investigation together with characterization of legionellae isolated from patients and putative environmental sources [1, 2]. As the vast majority of cases of legionellosis are caused by Legionella pneumophila, and this species is very common in the environment, discriminatory typing methods are needed to differentiate between isolates if a convincing epidemiological link between patient and source is to be established. Consequently a large number of molecular methods Idasanutlin in vitro have been investigated for epidemiological typing purposes and one of these, devised by members of the European LY2228820 nmr Working Group for Legionella Infections (EWGLI) and termed sequence-based typing (SBT), has become PXD101 in vivo established internationally as the typing method of choice [3, 4]. This method is a variant of the classic multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) schemes used to identify bacterial lineages, the utility of which has been previously described [5]. The availability of a substantial quantity of international SBT typing data has led to the recognition that the majority of legionellosis is caused by a relatively small subset of all strains recovered from

the environment [6, 7]. This poses the question of whether some clonal lineages have characteristics that make them more likely to cause human infection than others that are more, or equally, prevalent in the environment [6]. Requirements to answer this question

are; a means to subdivide the L. pneumophila population into clusters which are genetically similar so that we can describe the shared phenotypes of these clusters, and knowledge of the frequency Resveratrol of horizontal gene transfer (HGT) and recombination. This latter is crucial since these molecular events may result in the rapid development of novel phenotypes previously unseen in a clonal lineage and high levels of recombination may make clustering of organisms into related groups problematic [8]. Early studies using electrophoretic analysis of protein polymorphism (multi locus enzyme electrophoresis, MLEE) described 62 electrophoretic types and concluded that L. pneumophila was clonal in nature [9]. More recently a study examining four genes in the dot/icm complex [10] demonstrated clear evidence of intraspecific genetic exchange in L. pneumophila. Whilst initial studies using SBT data [11, 12] supported evidence for the clonal nature of L.pneumophila, it was acknowledged that intergenic recombination events could not be ruled out. Subsequent work analysing intragenic recombination in the six SBT loci and additional non-coding loci concluded that recombination was frequent in Legionella spp. [13, 14].

aureus database sequences and 97–98% identity amongst other staph

aureus database sequences and 97–98% identity amongst other staphylococci, including S. haemolyticus, S. epidermidis and S. saprophyticus, indicating that SA1665 is highly conserved. Conversely, there were no orfs highly similar to SA1665 found in other bacterial species, with the most similar sequences found in Bacillus licheniformis DSM13 and Desulfitobacterium hafniense Y51, which shared only 64% and 59% similarity, Milciclib cell line respectively. Figure 1 DNA-binding protein purification assay using mec operator DNA region as a bait. A, Silver stained SDS-polyacrylamide protein gel containing the elutions from DNA-binding protein capture assays performed with either DNA-coated

(+) or uncoated (-) Pifithrin-�� in vitro streptavidin magnetic beads. One protein band, indicated by the arrow, was only captured by the DNA-coated beads, indicating that it bound specifically to the mec operator

Selleckchem Oligomycin A DNA. The protein size marker (M) is shown on the left. B, Organisation of the genomic region surrounding SA1665. The regions used to construct the deletion mutants are indicated by lines framed by inverted arrow, which represent the positions of primers used for their amplification. The chromosomal organisation, after deletion of SA1665 is shown beneath. The position of the SA1665 transcriptional terminator, which remained intact after SA1665 markerless deletion is indicated (⫯). Electro mobility shift assays (EMSA) EMSA was used to confirm binding of SA1665 to the mec operator region. Crude protein extracts of E. coli strain BL21, carrying for the empty plasmid (pET28nHis6) or pME20 (pET28nHis6-SA1665) which expressed nHis6-SA1665 upon induction with IPTG, were incubated with

the 161-bp biotinylated-DNA fragment previously used as bait in the DNA-binding protein assay. A band shift was observed with extracts from the strain expressing recombinant nHis6-SA1665 but not from the control strain carrying the empty plasmid. Several bands resulted from the shift, which is most likely due to protein oligomerisation (Figure 2A). The specifiCity of the gel shift was also demonstrated by the addition of increasing concentrations of purified nHis6-SA1665 protein to the biotinylated-DNA fragment (Figure 2B). Band-shift of the biotinylated DNA was inhibited in the presence of specific competitor DNA but not by the presence of the non-specific competitor DNA, confirming that nHis6-SA1665 had a specific binding affinity for the 161-bp DNA fragment. Figure 2 Electromobility shift of mec operator DNA by SA1665. A, Gel shift using biotinylated DNA (6 ng) and crude protein extracts. Lane 1, DNA only control; lanes 2 and 3, DNA incubated with 200 ng and 500 ng of crude protein extract from E. coli BL21 pET28nHis6, respectively; lanes 4 and 5, DNA incubated with 200 ng and 500 ng of crude protein extract from E. coli BL21 pME20, expressing SA1665, respectively. B, Gel shift of biotinylated DNA (6 ng) with purified SA1665 protein.

Clin Infect Dis 2004, 38:521–528 CrossRefPubMed 8 Charles PG, Wa

Clin Infect Dis 2004, 38:521–528.CrossRefPubMed 8. Charles PG, Ward PB, Johnson PD, Howden BP, Grayson ML: Clinical features associated with bacteremia due to heterogeneous vancomycin-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus. Clin Infect Dis 2004, 38:448–451.CrossRefPubMed 9. Howden BP, Smith DJ, Mansell A, Johnson PDR, Ward PB, Stinear TP, Davies JK: Different bacterial gene expression patterns and AZD6094 supplier attenuated host immune responses are associated with the evolution of low-level vancomycin resistance during persistent methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia. BMC Microbiol

2008, 8:39–53.CrossRefPubMed 10. Neoh H, Cui L, Yuzawa H, Takeuchi F, Matsuo M, Hiramatsu K: Mutated Response Regulator graR MAPK inhibitor Is Responsible for Phenotypic Conversion of Staphylococcus aureus from Heterogeneous

GS-9973 purchase Vancomycin-Intermediate Resistance to Vancomycin-Intermediate Resistance. Antimicrob Agent Chemotherap 2008, 52:45–53.CrossRef 11. Howden BP, Stinear TP, Allen DL, Johnson PDR, Ward PB, Davies JK: Genomic Analysis Reveals a Point Mutation in the Two-Component Sensor Gene graS That Leads to Intermediate Vancomycin Resistance in Clinical Staphylococcus aureus. Antimicrobial Agents And Chemotherapy 2008, 52:3755–62.CrossRefPubMed 12. Cui L, Neoh H, Shoji M, Hiramatsu K: Contribution of vraSR and graSR Point Mutations to Vancomycin Resistance in Vancomycin-Intermediate Staphylococcus aureus. Antimicrob Agent Chemotherapy 2009, 53:1231–4.CrossRef 13. Lindsay JA, Holden MTG: Understanding the rise of the superbug: C59 cost investigation of the evolution and genomic variation of Staphylococcus aureus. Funct Integr Genomics 2006, 6:186–201.CrossRefPubMed 14. Deurenberg RH, Vink C, Kalenic S, Friedrich AW, Bruggeman CA, Stobberingh EE: The molecular evolution of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Clin Microbiol Infect 2007, 13:222–235.CrossRefPubMed 15. Hanaki H, Hososaka Y, Yanagisawa C, Otsuka Y, Nagasawa Z, Nakae T, Sunakawa K: Occurrence of

vancomycin-intermediate-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Japan. J Infect Chemother 2007, 13:118–121.CrossRefPubMed 16. Sakoulas GR, Moellering C, Eliopoulos GM: Adaptation of methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus in the face of vancomycin therapy. Clin Infec Dis 2007, 42:S40-S50.CrossRef 17. Verdier I, Reverdy ME, Etienne J, Lina G, Bes M, Vandenesch F:Staphylococcus aureus isolates with reduced susceptibility to glycopeptides belong to accessory gene regulator group I or II. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2004, 48:1024–1027.CrossRefPubMed 18. Boyle-Vavra S, Daum RS: Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: the role of Panton-Valentine leukocidin. Lab Inves 2007, 87:3–9.CrossRef 19. Fridkin S: Vancomycin-intermediate and -resistant Staphylococcus aureus : what the infectious disease specialist needs to know. Clin Infect Dis 2001, 32:108–115.CrossRefPubMed 20.

Cancer Letters 2008, 269: 269–280 PubMedCrossRef 14 Zhao J, Wang

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transfer of CGRP inhibits neointimal hyperplasia after balloon injury in the rat abdominal aorta. American Journal of Physiology and Heart see more Circulation Physiolosy 2004, 287: H1582-H1589.CrossRef 17. Shafi G, Munshi A, Hasan TN, Alshatwi AA, Jyothy A, Lei DKY: Induction of apoptosis in HeLa cells by chloroform fraction of seed extracts of Nigella sativa . Cancer Cell International 2009, 9: 29.PubMedCrossRef 18. Yuan JS, Reed A, Chen F, Stewart CN Jr: Statistical analysis of real-time PCR data. BMC Bioinformatics 2006, 7: 85.PubMedCrossRef 19. Motomura M, Kwon KM, Suh SJ, Lee YC, Kim YK, Lee IS, et al.: learn more Propolis

induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in human leukemic U937 cells through Bcl-2/Bax regulation. Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology 2008, 26: 61–67.CrossRef 20. Sen S, D’Incalci M: Biochemical events and relevance to cancer chemotherapy. FEBS Letters 1992, 307: 122–127.PubMedCrossRef 21. Khan MR, Mlungwana SM: c-sitosterol, a cytotoxic sterol from Markhamia zanzibarica and Kigelia africana . Fitoterapia 1999, 70: 96–97.CrossRef 22. Panchal RG: Novel therapeutic strategies to selectively kill cancer cells. Biochemical Pharmacology 1998, 55: 247–252.PubMedCrossRef 23. Farabegoli F, Papi A, Bartolini G, Ostan R, Orlandi M: (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallatedownregulatesPg-PandBCRPinatamoxifen

resistant MCF-7cellline. Phytomedicine 2010, 17: Cediranib (AZD2171) 356–362.PubMedCrossRef 24. Ahmeda K, Weia Z, Zhaoa Q, Nakajimab N, Matsunagac T, Ogasawarac M, Kondoa T: Role of fatty acid chain length on the induction of apoptosis by newly synthesized catechin derivatives. Chemico-Biological Interactions 2010, 185: 182–188.CrossRef 25. Babich H, Krupka ME, Nissim HA, Zuckerbraun HL: Differential in vitro cytotoxicity of (-)-epicatechin gallate (ECG) to cancer and normal cells from the human oral cavity. Toxicology in vitro 2005, 19: 231–242.PubMedCrossRef 26. Hengartner MO: The biochemistry of apoptosis. Nature 2002, 407: 770–776.CrossRef 27. Shah S, Gapor A, Sylvester PW: Role of caspase-8 activation in mediating vitamin E-induced apoptosis in murine mammary cancer cells. Nutrition and Cancer 2003, 45: 236–246.PubMedCrossRef 28. Earnshaw WC, Martins LM, Kaufmann SH: Mammalian caspases Structure, activation, substrates, and functions during apoptosis.

THI was superior to conventional

US in the visualization

THI was superior to conventional

US in the visualization of lesions containing highly reflective tissues such selleck inhibitor as fat, calcium and air. It is therefore recommended to be used in obese patients. Better definition of the posterior acoustic shadows in calcifications and appendicolith(s) [21–28]. In our previous study the negative appendectomy rate was 17.5% compared to 4.3% in the current work. Contrary to our previous results [1] some published data expressed a negative appendectomy rate of 5.5% by applying somewhat similar scoring system [19]. The reason for such difference may be their use of computerized tomography scanning (CT) in their system. However, the difference in the negative appendectomy rate does not support the use of such an expensive sophisticated and hazardous radiological tool to children. CT scanning is not always available in all centers limiting its incorporation in clinical practice guideline scoring system. A Elafibranor recently published study of a practice guideline found that CT scan did not improve the accuracy of diagnosis

in patients with suspected appendicitis [29]. Their guideline did not specifically address the appropriate use of CT scan. Our MCPGS results, however, did show a great decline in the rate of negative appendectomies. This goes with data of some authors who showed that an imaging protocol using US followed by Liproxstatin-1 CT in their patients with equivocal presentations improved the accuracy of diagnosis of appendicitis [30]. We presented our results of MCPGS which evolved from this and other studies recommending ultrasound as the imaging modality of choice in most patients. In addition the recommendation of MCPGS was not limited to imaging alone. Most clinical practice scoring guidelines encourage, but do not require complaints with recommendations Phosphoglycerate kinase [31]. Measuring complaints can be challenging because scoring guidelines can include numerous recommendations and because patients, especially children do not always match preconceived scenarios [32]. Although many barriers limit physician acceptance of scoring guidelines [33], the compliance with our MCPGS is consistent with other developed practice scoring

guidelines [2, 3, 6–9, 34]. A considerable portion of the improvement seen in our study could be because of the utilization and accuracy of suitable imaging. Practice scoring guidelines and clinical pathways have been implemented for many conditions [26], including acute appendicitis [16, 30, 35]. Analysis of such guidelines can focus on any combination of patient outcome, resource utilization or complaints with recommendation [16, 34–38]. Although most appendicitis scoring guideline and pathways focus on decreasing postoperative treatment cost, a few concentrate diagnosis itself. One such pathway in a pediatric hospital achieved a significant reduction in the number of laboratory tests and X-rays without adversely affecting the incidence of negative appendectomies or perforation [34].

Therefore, I characterized the surrounding landscape using a

Therefore, I characterized the surrounding landscape using a SAHA HDAC suite of landscape metrics calculated from the available digital CORINE landcover data following their formulation in McGarigal and Marks (1995) (Table 1).

All the metrics were calculated for a buffer of 1.5 km from each side of the riparian zone because this was the average distance from the waterway to the top of the nearest hill. As a proxy for the effect of propagule connectivity (Li and Wu 2004), I assessed the potential impact of type of surrounding landscape (area of cork oak, holm oak, dry agriculture, irrigated agriculture and others), and for each of the land cover types its extent (patch size), configuration (number of patches), its degree of contact with the riparian area (edge density) and its shape complexity (area weighted mean shape index and area weighted mean fractal dimension). Further, to assess the effect of the presence of multiple surrounding landscapes on the seed sources

to surveyed patches in the riparian areas, the BI 10773 cell line landscape diversity index and landscape equitability were calculated using Shannon-Wiener (H’) and Simpson (D) diversity indexes, which account for both the abundance and evenness of landscape (Krebs 1998). The Shannon diversity

index emphasizes rare landscapes whereas the Simpson diversity index more heavily Phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase weights common landscapes. H’ GSK872 price varies between 0 to log(k), where k is the number of classes, and D varies from 0 to +∞. I also calculated the evenness of the landscapes using the Shannon’s equitability index (J’). Equitability assumes values between 0 and 1, with 1 being complete evenness in landscape composition and corresponds to samples receiving the maximum value of the Shannon-Wiener index. Landscape metrics were calculated using the “Patch Analyst v. 3.1” (Rempel and Carr 2003) extension for ArcView 3.2 (ESRI 1996). Finally, I made qualitative assessments of the degree of human presence through registering presence and absence of human activities (houses, livestock, hunting, farming, etc.), development (houses, fences and roads), and livestock along each transect (Table 1).

05) Tendencies were observed for time 40-sec (p = 0 07), 80-sec

05). Tendencies were observed for time 40-sec (p = 0.07), 80-sec (p = 0.08) and 90-sec (p = 0.07). Discussion The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of a nutritional strategy on the physical performance of competitive tennis players. This strategy consisted of taking a pre-match drink, a match-drink and a post-match drink during every match of a simulated tennis tournament. Based on data in the literature, showing that a prolonged tennis

match could induce muscle fatigue [20,21], our first hypothesis was that repeated tennis matches would induce a decrease in physical performance even after a few hours of recovery compared to the resting condition. Since some studies have buy SIS3 also demonstrated that carbohydrate supplements during prolonged tennis matches delays the onset of fatigue [4,5,8–10], our second hypothesis was that drinking sports beverages before, during and after each tennis match would limit the decrease in physical performance compared to conditions where the only fluid intake was water. The main results show that playing three simulated tennis matches in a thirty-six-hour period did not significantly decrease

any of the physical performance measures 3 h after the last match. Various studies have shown that prolonged tennis playing in competitions leads to the development of muscle fatigue that may impair skilled performance on the court [3–6]. However, all of these studies conducted performance tests during or immediately after the match. Given the characteristics of tennis tournaments, i.e. several matches in a limited time-frame interspersed with

short recovery periods, it is important check details to consider whether these consecutive matches would finally result in decreased physical performance and whether ingesting sports drinks before, during and after each match would Chlormezanone limit fatigue, facilitate recovery and so favor improved performance in subsequent matches. Considering that nutritional strategies can have an important influence on the capacity to recover [14,22], notably influencing muscle and hepatic glycogen stores [23], we have been careful in this study to precisely control the amount and type of nutrients ingested during the meals taken by the players in the different conditions Sotrastaurin ic50 studied. Thus the breakfasts, lunches and dinners eaten on study days were standardized and identical for each of the conditions. The results of our study show that after playing three 2-hour matches within thirty-six hours, only 3 hours of passive recovery (including the ingestion of a standardized lunch) was sufficient to observe no significant decrease in physical performance parameters, compared to the rest condition. The only significant difference in physical performance was the increase in RMS values during the 90-s sustained isometric contraction at 25% MVC for the lateral head of the triceps brachii in the PLA condition compared to the CON condition.

Furthermore, during the lumbar puncture there is a risk (although

Furthermore, during the lumbar puncture there is a risk (although rare) to spread the infected pus-like material if the needle traverses the abscess which could have happened to our patient. Unfortunately our patient had a poor prognosis and died 6 weeks after his admission in the ICU. Conclusion Spinal subdural abscess is a very rare but well described entity and associated with high

morbidity and mortality. It is a neurosurgical emergency and as soon as diagnosis is established surgical treatment in collaboration to antibiotic therapy should selleck kinase inhibitor be performed. Progressive neurological deficits, severe pain and fever suggest the diagnosis. The timing of the contrast-enhanced MRI, which is the modality of choice, is very NU7026 ic50 important when the physicians notice the above symptoms. Staph aureus should be considered the most possible pathogen. Consent Written informed consent was obtained from the patient relative for publication of this case report and MRI images. A copy of the written consent is available from the editor-in-chief of the journal. References 1. Vural M, Arslantaş A, Adapınar B, Kiremitcçi A, Usluer G, Cuong B, Atasoy MA: Spinal subdural Staphylococcus aureus abscess: case report and review of the

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complicated with spinal subdural abscess. Pediatr Neurol 1999, 20:157–60.CrossRefPubMed 5. Ozates M, Ozkan U, Kemaloglu S, Hosoglu S, Sari I: Spinal subdural VX-661 in vitro tuberculous abscess. Spinal Cord 2000, 38:56–8.CrossRefPubMed 6. Chern SH, Wei CP, Hsieh RL, Wang JL: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus retropharyngeal abscess complicated by a cervical spinal subdural empyema. J Clin Neurosci 2009, 16:144–146.CrossRefPubMed oxyclozanide 7. Ko MW, Osborne B, Jung S, Jacobs DA, Marcotte P, Galetta SL: Papilledema as a manifestation of a spinal subdural abscess. J Neurol Sci 2007, 260:288–292.CrossRefPubMed 8. Sorar M, Er U, Seckin H, Ozturk MH, Bavbek M: Spinal subdural abscess: a rare cause of low back pain. J Clin Neurosci 2008, 15:292–294.CrossRefPubMed 9. Semlali S, Akjouj S, Chaouir S, Hanine A, Ben Ameur M: Spinal subdural tuberculous abscess in a patient with tuberculous meningitis. J Radiol 2007, 88:280–281.CrossRefPubMed 10. Woo SP, Han YS, Hong KC, Sam SY, Hwan AY: Infantile Lumbosacral Spinal Subdural Abscess with Sacral Dermal Sinus Tract. Spine 2007,E32(1):E52-E55. 11. Poppucci A, De Bonis P, Sabatino G, Federico G, Moschini M, Anile C, Mangiola A: Cranio-spinal subdural empyema due to S. intermedius: a case report. J neuroimaging 2007,17(4):358–60.CrossRef 12.