However, abnormalities detected by karyotype analysis cannot always be characterised by scrutinising the G-banded pattern alone, and imbalance detected by array CGH cannot always be visualised in the context of metaphase chromosomes. In some cases further techniques are needed for detailed characterisation of chromosomal abnormalities. We investigated seven cases involving structural
chromosome rearrangements detected by karyotype analysis, and one case where imbalance was primarily detected by array CGH. Multicolor banding (MCB) was used in all cases and proved invaluable in understanding the detailed structure of the abnormalities.
Findings: Karyotype analysis detected structural chromosome rearrangements in 7 cases and MCB was used to help refine the KY 12420 karyotype for each case. Array CGH detected imbalance in an eighth case, where previously, G-banded chromosome analysis had reported a normal karyotype. Karyotype analysis of a second tissue type revealed this abnormality in mosaic form; however, MCB was needed in order to characterise this rearrangement. MCB provided information for the delineation of small deletions, duplications, insertions and inversions and helped to assign breakpoints which were difficult to identify
from G-banded preparations due to ambiguous banding patterns.
Conclusion: Despite the recent advance of array
Selleckchem CX-4945 CGH in molecular cytogenetics we conclude that fluorescence in situ hybridization, including MCB, is still required Adriamycin clinical trial for the elucidation of structural chromosome rearrangements, and remains an essential adjunct in modern diagnostic laboratories.”
“P>In plants, microRNAs (miRNAs) comprise one of three classes of small RNAs regulating gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. Many plant miRNAs are conserved, and play a role in development, abiotic stress responses or pathogen responses. However, some miRNAs have only been found in certain species. Here, we use deep-sequencing, computational and molecular methods to identify, profile, and describe conserved and non-conserved miRNAs in four grapevine (Vitis vinifera) tissues. A total of 24 conserved miRNA families were identified in all four tissues, and 26 known but non-conserved miRNAs were also found. In addition to known miRNAs, we also found 21 new grapevine-specific miRNAs together with their star strands. We have also shown that almost all of them originated from single genes. Furthermore, 21 other plausible miRNA candidates have been described. We have found that many known and new miRNAs showed tissue-specific expression. Finally, 112 target mRNAs of known and 44 target mRNAs of new grapevine-specific miRNAs were identified by genomic-scale high-throughput sequencing of miRNA cleaved mRNAs.