Based on the findings reviewed above, it is important for clinicians to carefully evaluate sleep symptoms in patients with depression. The emerging view that OSI-744 cell line insomnia is commonly comorbid with depression, rather than simply secondary to depression, suggests that, both insomnia and depression may warrant, specific treatment, in many cases. Although there have been few randomized, controlled treatment trials on insomnia comorbid Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical with depression, the available evidence
suggests the efficacy of several treatment approaches. Antidepressant pharmacotherapy alone In most patients treated successfully with antidepressants, sleep symptoms improve in parallel with other depressive symptoms. This is true even with relatively “alerting” drugs such as SSRIs. However, a substantial minority of patients experience increased sleep disturbance with SSRIs and bupropion, either in the form
of insomnia or restless legs symptoms. Direct, comparisons confirm that more “sedating” antidepressant drugs Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical such as nefazodone and amitriptyline improve sleep symptoms and polysomnography findings to a greater degree than SSRIs.7,73,74 Nefazodone also showed greater sleep improvement than depression-specific psychotherapy in one study.75 Thus, among patients who present with significant insomnia at the time of depression, selection of a more sedating antidepressant drug, such as mirtazapine, may be reasonable. If the risks of Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical a tricyclic antidepressant or full-dose trazodone are reasonable
in a specific patient, these might also be considered. Antidepressant plus hypnotic For most, patients, the favorable risk-benefit profile of SSRI and SNRT drugs warrant, their use as first-line agents. Among patients with comorbid insomnia, benzodiazepine receptor agonist, hypnotics can be an efficacious adjunctive Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical treatment. For instance, the combination of eszopiclone plus fluoxetine has been shown to be associated with greater sleep improvement, and strong trends toward an increased rate of depression response, compared with treatment with fluoxetine Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical alone.48,76 Older studies also suggest, that, depression outcomes are not adversely impacted by the addition of a benzodiazepine to other antidepressant treatment, and that this strategy may improve compliance.49,51 Antidepressant plus low-dose trazodone or doxepin those Although no large randomized clinical trials have been conducted, smaller studies suggest, that, the addition of low-dose (50 to 100 mg) trazodone to an SSRI or monoamine oxidase inhibitor can improve insomnia comorbid with depression.77 In one placebo-controlled study77 of adjunctive trazodone, a good hypnotic response was observed in 67% with trazodone and only 13% with placebo. Excessive sedation is sometimes observed because of the relatively long duration of action of trazodone. In a case series of patients with insomnia associated with fluoxetine,78 adjunctive trazodone was stopped for excessive sedation in 5 of 21 patients (24%).