The reproducibility of LTH is strongly dependent on the way of expressing data and the technique used to record skin blood flux. When using single-point LDF, we found the inter-day reproducibility of both peak and plateau expressed as raw CVC to be acceptable for finger pad measurements (CV were 17% and 25%, respectively), but not for measurements
on the forearm (CV were 57% and 40%) . Normalizing baseline skin temperature to 33°C before heating did not improve the inter-day reproducibility of LTH on the Fulvestrant cost forearm, whatever the way of expressing data . Other groups have found better reproducibility of LTH on the forearm by using integrating probes (which process an integrated signal taken as the average flow value from seven or eight different scattering volumes). Agarwal et al. found CV ranging from 9% to 38%, depending on the method of data expression ; however, the heating conditions were different from ours; the heating rate was 10-fold lower and the maximum temperature was 41°C. Moreover, Agarwal et al. used local anesthesia to avoid axon reflex vasodilation, thus providing data only for the plateau . Tew et al., using a similar protocol and form of data expression to ours, showed better reproducibility of LTH on the DMXAA concentration forearm expressed as raw CVC, %CVCmax or %CVCBL, both for the initial peak (CV were 19%, 11%
and 32%, respectively) and for the plateau (CV were 19%, 4% and 30%, respectively) . The inter-day reproducibility of LTH on the forearm when using full-field techniques such as LDI was good for the plateau (CV was 17% when expressed as raw CVC) . However, LDI was not as accurate when used to assess the LTH peak on the Resminostat forearm,
probably because of its slow kinetics over wide areas (CV for peak was 39% when expressed as raw CVC). The good inter-site reproducibility of peak CVC simultaneously assessed at two sites on the same forearm strengthens this hypothesis . As such, lower resolution over smaller areas would probably increase peak reproducibility using LDI, but to the detriment of the main advantage of LDI, i.e., recording flux over wide areas. We found that the recently marketed high frame rate LSCI offers excellent inter-day reproducibility of the LTH peak and plateau on the forearm (see below). These results suggest that lowering inter-site variability (by using integrating LDF probes or full-field techniques) could be decisive in improving the inter-day reproducibility of LTH on the forearm (Table 1). Although many heating protocols have been proposed, local warming to 42–43°C is usually sufficient to induce maximal vasodilation . In our experience, heating to 44°C is well tolerated in healthy subjects, but may lead to pain or a burning sensation in patients with abnormal microvascular function (e.g., systemic sclerosis).