01 to 0.3 μg/kg/min has been shown may be effective [16, 17]. On 1993 Martin and coll.  published a Dinaciclib nmr randomized trial comparing norepinephrine vs dopamine. 32 volume-resuscitated septic patients were given either dopamine or norepinephrine to achieve and maintain normal hemodynamic and oxygen transport see more parameters for at least 6 h. Dopamine administration was successful in only 31% of patients, whereas norepinephrine administration was successful in 93%. Of the 11 patients who did not respond to dopamine, 10 responded when norepinephrine was added to therapy. Serum
lactate levels were decreased as well, suggesting that norepinephrine therapy improved tissue oxygenation. Recently a prospective trial by Patel and coll. compared dopamine to norepinephrine as the initial vasopressor in fluid resuscitated 252 adult patients with septic shock . If the maximum dose of the initial vasopressor was unable to maintain the hemodynamic goal, then fixed dose vasopressin was added to each regimen. If additional vasopressor support was needed to achieve the hemodynamic goal, then phenylephrine was added. In this study dopamine and norepinephrine were equally effective as initial agents as judged
by 28-day mortality rates. However, there were significantly more cardiac arrhythmias with dopamine treatment. The Surviving Sepsis Campaign guidelines  state that there is no sufficient evidence to suggest which agent is better as initial vasopressor in the management of patients with septic shock. Phenylephrine Thalidomide ACP-196 supplier is a selective alpha-1 adrenergic receptor agonist primarily used in anesthesia to increase blood pressure. Although studies are limited , its rapid onset, short duration, and primary vascular effects make it an interesting agent in the management of hypotension
associated with sepsis, but there are concerns about its potential to reduce cardiac output in these patients. Epinephrine is a potent α-adrenergic and β-adrenergic agent that increases mean arterial pressure by increasing both cardiac index and peripheral vascular tone. The chief concern about the use of epinephrine in septic patients is the potential to decrease regional blood flow, particularly in the splanchnic circulation. On 2003 De Backer and coll.  published a trial to compare effects of dopamine, norepinephrine, and epinephrine on the splanchnic circulation in septic shock. In patients with severe septic shock, epinephrine administration increased global oxygen delivery and consumption. It caused lower absolute and fractional splanchnic blood flow and lower indocyanine green clearance, validating the adverse effects of therapy with epinephrine alone on the splanchnic circulation. Epinephrine administration can increase blood pressure in patients who are unresponsive to first-line agents. It increases heart rate, and has the potential to induce tachyarrhythmias, ischemia, and hypoglycemia.