Comparative genomic analysis of the two strains identified a numb

Comparative genomic analysis of the two strains identified a number of genomic regions and genes containing virulence factors. Of particular interest was the discovery of a novel plasmid

pPAA3 that was previously unknown in the genus Photorhabdus. The pPAA3 plasmid contains a Type IV secretion system similar to the pCRY plasmid in Yersinia pestis. Type IV secretion systems are well-known virulence factors, involved in delivering ‘effectors’ AZD6244 such as toxins into eukaryotic cells. We speculate that this plasmid may be responsible for the ability of the Australian isolates to invade nonphagocytic cells in tissue culture, which is not seen in the closely related US isolates that lack this plasmid (Costa et al., 2009). We used a combination of Illumina, 454 and Sanger sequencing

to gather primary sequence data for the P. asymbiotica Kingscliff genome. We also constructed libraries to provide both Illumina-based paired-end reads and large insert fosmid libraries for conventional Sanger-based end sequencing (see Supporting Information, Appendix S1 for details). We used three different workflows, combining different types of sequence data with different assembly algorithms, to look for the optimal de novo assembly (see Fig. S1). The first (Workflow A) used the VCAKE pipeline (Reinhardt et al., 2009) to perform a hybrid assembly of the 454 data and the Illumina paired and unpaired reads. Illumina reads were de novo clustered with vcake version Bortezomib 1.03 into GNA12 VCAKE contigs. Newbler then assembles VCAKE contigs and 454 long reads into hybrid contigs. The Newbler scaffolder orients the hybrid contigs into larger hybrid scaffolds using

454 paired-end data. Hybrid scaffolds are cleaned of 1–2 base pairs (bp) indels using Illumina read depth; longer gaps within scaffolds were filled with unused VCAKE and hybrid contigs in Finisher. Finally, polymorphism and coverage in the scaffolds were used to identify any putative repeat regions. The second workflow (Workflow B) used the velvet assembler (version 0.7.27) to produce an assembly of the Illumina paired read data. The third workflow (Workflow C) was a hybrid assembly of Illumina paired read data and 454 data using the VELVET assembler. Once the assemblies were complete, Sanger-derived fosmid end sequences were aligned to the different assemblies to verify that the contigs were in the correct orientation. Sequence alignments were performed using the newbler gsmapper software, providing the assembly contigs as a reference sequence. Alignments were visualized using Seqman (dna star version 8). The optimal draft assembly was selected by choosing the output that had the optimal characteristics of high N50, low N and a sum of contigs equal to the estimated genome size, which was estimated to be ∼5 Mb. For comparisons with the finished genome of P. asymbiotica ATCC43949, Illumina paired-end reads were mapped both to the genome and to the pPAU1 and pCRY plasmids using the maq assembler version 0.6.

The k and n value represent the rate constant per minute, the het

The k and n value represent the rate constant per minute, the heterogenicity parameter. The predicted amino acid sequence similarity between the two recombinant toxins TRH and TDH used in this study was 67.3%. From 2 L of culture supernatant of JM109 (DE3) harboring the recombinant plasmid, a final amount

of 6 mg signal peptide-deleted TRH was purified using a series of column chromatography procedures. Purified TRH showed a single band by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The molecular size of both purified TRH and purified TDH was 23 kDa. This molecular size of TRH is consistent with that estimated in a previous study on the purification of native TRH from V. parahaemolyticus clinical isolates (Honda et al., 1988). TDH forms tetramer in solution (Fukui et al., 2005; Hamada Autophagy activity inhibition et al., 2007). We performed size-exclusion chromatography to investigate the association state HDAC inhibitor of TRH in solution. The elution volume of TRH corresponded with that of tetrameric TDH, indicating that TRH is organized into a tetrameric structure (Fig. 1a). We investigated

the association and equilibrium state of TRH by analytical ultracentrifugation (Fig. 1b). Sedimentation equilibrium showed that the molecular mass of TRH was 75 000 ± 200 Da, which is similar to the molecular mass of tetrameric TDH of 75 000 ± 700 Da as determined by sedimentation equilibrium analysis (Hamada et al., 2007). The molecular mass Selleck Metformin of monomeric TRH was calculated as 18 600 Da. Therefore, TRH also exists as a tetramer in solution. Further, transmission electron microscopy of negatively stained samples showed tetrameric oligomerization of TRH (Fig. 1c). To investigate differences in structure and function

between TRH and TDH at the atomic level, we built the homology model of TRH and compared the three-dimensional structures of TRH and TDH. The structure of TRH exhibited a good fit to that of TDH (Fig. 1d). Furthermore, the three-dimensional position of R46, E138, and Y140, which may participate in π-cation interactions and maintain TDH tetrameric structures, was also conserved in TRH, suggesting that they may be important factors for tetrameric structure and hemolysis for these toxins. To compare the hemolytic activities of TRH and TDH, we measured their activities in human erythrocytes (Fig. 2a). At 1 μM, the hemolytic activity of TRH was higher than that of TDH. However, this difference was not observed when the concentration was >4 μM. To investigate whether TRH shows an Arrhenius effect, the hemolytic activity of TRH was measured after various heat treatments (Fig. 2b). TDH lost its hemolytic activity after heating at 60 °C for 30 min (TDH, fibril); however, the activity was recovered after rapid cooling from the denatured state at 90 °C (TDH, refold; the Arrhenius effect).

In individuals with reduced immune function, primary HSV may not

In individuals with reduced immune function, primary HSV may not resolve spontaneously but persist with the development of progressive, eruptive

and coalescing mucocutaneous anogenital lesions [48–50]. In addition, healing of uncomplicated lesions may be delayed beyond 2–3 weeks, and is often associated with systemic symptoms such as fever and myalgia [51]. In rare cases, severe systemic complications, such as hepatitis, pneumonia, aseptic meningitis and autonomic neuropathy with urinary retention Selleck Sotrastaurin may develop and may be life-threatening. In recurrent genital herpes, groups of vesicles or ulcers develop in a single anatomical dermatomal site and usually heal within 5–10 days. In HIV-seronegative persons, recurrences average five clinical episodes per year for the first two years and reduce in BKM120 price frequency thereafter. The frequency and severity of recurrent disease is significantly greater in HIV-infected persons with low CD4 cell counts [39,40]. HAART reduces the number of days with HSV lesions although it does not appear to normalize the frequency of reactivation to rates seen in HIV-seronegative individuals

[52,53]. Atypical presentations of genital herpes have been reported in HIV-seropositive persons, including chronic erosive and chronic hypertrophic lesions in association with more severe immune deficiency, aciclovir resistance and starting HAART [53,54]. Nonmucosal or systemic HSV infection is more common and may be more severe Interleukin-2 receptor in immunocompromised patients, though the clinical presentation may be similar to immunocompetent individuals [55]. HSV eye disease includes keratoconjunctivitis and acute retinal necrosis. Systemic HSV infection may result in pneumonia, hepatitis, oesophagitis and CNS disease. HSV infection of the CNS can cause aseptic meningitis, encephalitis, myelitis and radiculopathy. Preceding mucocutaneous

disease is frequently absent. Aseptic meningitis is usually a consequence of primary HSV-2 infection and may be recurrent. HSV encephalitis has been reported in HIV-seropositive adults, but is uncommon. Clinical presentation includes fever, headache, decreased or fluctuating level of consciousness and seizures. Brainstem involvement may occur. Detection of HSV in clinical lesions (see Table 6.1). Swabs should be taken from the base of the lesion or fluid from the vesicle. For culture tests it is essential that the cold chain (4 °C) is maintained and appropriate media are used. PCR testing is most useful as less scrupulous handling of specimens is required [56]. PCR testing is rapid and sensitive resulting in increased identification of HSV-2 in lesions [57]. In one study the sensitivity of culture for HSV-2 was 73% as compared to 98% with PCR and both tests had 100% specificity [20]. Histopathology and PCR for HSV DNA may be helpful in the diagnosis of systemic disease.

, 2009) Various structures of Mt-DapD have been obtained, both i

, 2009). Various structures of Mt-DapD have been obtained, both in native form and in complex

with succinyl-CoA SB203580 datasheet (Schuldt et al., 2008, 2009). A ribbon model of Mt-DapD is shown in Fig. 2. Mt-DapD forms a biologically relevant homotrimer, and each monomer is composed of three distinct domains – an N-terminal α/β-globular domain, a left- handed parallel β helix and a small C-terminal domain (Schuldt et al., 2008, 2009). The amino acid residues Glu 199 and Gly 222 of Mt-DapD are important for enzymatic activity. Mt-DapD is activated by Mg2+, Ca2+ and Mn2+ and inhibited by Co2+ and Zn2+ (Schuldt et al., 2009). The sixth step in this pathway is catalysed by Mt-DapC (Rv0858c), which transfers an amino group

from l-glutamate PLX-4720 in vivo and converts the substrate N-succinyl-2-amino-6-ketopimelate to N-succinyl diaminopimelate by the use of a pyridoxal phosphate (PLP) cofactor (Weyand et al., 2006, 2007). Mt-DapC belongs to the aminotransferase family of class I PLP-binding proteins. Mt-dapC has been heterologously expressed, purified and crystallized in two related crystal forms that arise from a pH difference between the crystallization conditions (Weyand et al., 2006). In the tetragonal crystal form, a monomer was present in the asymmetric unit, whereas in the orthorhombic crystal form, a dimer was present in the asymmetric unit (Weyand et al., 2006). Because of the presence of PLP in the crystal, both crystal forms appeared as pale yellow (Weyand et al., 2006). The three-dimensional structure of Mt-DapC was refined to a resolution of 2.0 Å (Weyand et al., 2007) and displayed the characteristic S-shape of class I PLP-binding proteins. Distinct from other class I PLP structures, Mt-DapC has an eighth β-strand inserted between strands three and four (Weyand et al., 2007). A ribbon diagram of Mt-DapC is shown in Fig. 2. Mt-dapE (Rv1202) encodes the N-succinyl-l,l-diaminopimelic

acid desuccinylase. DapE catalyses the hydrolysis of N-succinyl-l,l-diaminopimelic acid (SDAP) to l,l-diaminopimelic acid and succinate (Born et al., 1998; Davis et al., 2006). The enzyme is a metal-dependent peptidase (MEROPS family M28) catalysing the hydrolysis of substrate by water with the help of one or two metal ions located in the active site (Born et al., 1998; Nocek et al., 2010). DapEs have been over-expressed and purified from Helicobacter pylori, E. coli, Haemophilus influenzae and Neisseria meningitidis (Bouvier et al., 1992; Karita et al., 1997; Born et al., 1998; Bienvenue et al., 2003; Badger et al., 2005). DapEs from E. coli and H. influenzae are small proteins (approximately 42 kDa) requiring two Zn2+ ions per mole of polypeptide for their activity (Bouvier et al., 1992; Born & Blanchard, 1999; Bienvenue et al., 2003).

“Numerous studies in animals and humans have related centr

“Numerous studies in animals and humans have related central aspects of Stem Cell Compound Library chemical structure somatosensory

working memory function to neural activity in the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG). However, as previous studies have almost exclusively used correlational analyses, the question whether sustained neural activity in the IFG is causally involved in successful maintenance of somatosensory information remains unanswered. We used an online repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) protocol to disrupt neuronal activity in the IFG while participants were maintaining tactile information throughout the delay for later comparison against a probe stimulus. rTMS impaired participants’ performance in the working memory task, but

not in a physically matched perceptual control task. Targeting the IFG in either hemisphere led to comparable working memory impairment. Our results show that the neural activity in the IFG plays a causal role in successful maintenance of somatosensory information. “
“A goal-directed navigation model is proposed based on forward linear look-ahead probe of trajectories in a network of head direction cells, grid cells, place cells and prefrontal cortex (PFC) cells. The model allows Alectinib research buy selection the of new goal-directed trajectories. In a novel environment, the virtual rat incrementally creates a map composed of place cells and PFC cells by random exploration. After exploration, the rat retrieves memory of the goal location, picks its next movement direction by forward linear look-ahead probe of trajectories in several candidate directions while stationary in one location, and finds the one activating PFC cells with the highest reward signal. Each probe direction involves activation of a static pattern of head direction cells to drive an interference

model of grid cells to update their phases in a specific direction. The updating of grid cell spiking drives place cells along the probed look-ahead trajectory similar to the forward replay during waking seen in place cell recordings. Directions are probed until the look-ahead trajectory activates the reward signal and the corresponding direction is used to guide goal-finding behavior. We report simulation results in several mazes with and without barriers. Navigation with barriers requires a PFC map topology based on the temporal vicinity of visited place cells and a reward signal diffusion process. The interaction of the forward linear look-ahead trajectory probes with the reward diffusion allows discovery of never-before experienced shortcuts towards a goal location.

S1c) In brief, the autotransporter MisL involved in intestinal c

S1c). In brief, the autotransporter MisL involved in intestinal colonization (Dorsey et al., 2005), its regulator MarT (Tükel et al., 2007) and an unknown putative transcriptional regulator (STY4012) are inactivated in S. Typhi. SPI-4 is a 24 kb fragment located next to a potential tRNA-like gene at centisome 92 (Fig. S1d) and involved in adhesion to epithelial cells (Wong et al., 1998).

SPI-4 harbours the siiABCDEF gene cluster encoding a type one secretion system (T1SS) for SiiE, a giant nonfimbrial adhesin of 595 kDa (Morgan et al., 2004; Gerlach et al., 2007; Morgan et al., 2007). SiiE mediates a close interaction with microvilli found on the apical side of epithelial cells, thereby aiding efficient this website translocation of SPI-1 effectors required

for apical membrane ruffling (Gerlach et al., 2008). SiiE is encoded by one ORF in S. Typhimurium (STM4261), but is segmented into two ORFs in S. Typhi (STY4458 and STY4459) because of a stop codon, also present in S. Typhi strain Ty2 (Fig. S1d) (Deng et al., 2003). This suggests that siiE is a pseudogene in S. Typhi (Parkhill et al., 2001; Morgan et al., 2004), which correlates with a loss of function for an adhesin that contributes to intestinal colonization by S. Typhimurium (Morgan et al., 2007). SPI-5 is an island <8 kb in size, inserted next to the serT tRNA gene at centisome 25, and is required for enteropathogenicity (Wood et al., 1998). SPI-5 encodes effectors of both SPI-1 and SPI-2. No difference is observed KU-57788 in vitro between the two serovars, except that an additional ORF (STY1114) is predicted to encode a transposase in S. Typhi (Fig. S1e). SPI-6 is located next to the aspV tRNA gene at centisome 7 and is a 47 kb island in S. Typhimurium (Folkesson et al., 1999; Folkesson et al., 2002), whereas

it is rather 59 kb in S. Typhi (Parkhill et al., 2001). It was previously shown that the complete deletion of this island reduced the entry of S. Typhimurium in Hep2 cells (Folkesson et al., 2002). Located on this island are a type six secretion system (T6SS), the safABCD fimbrial gene cluster and the invasin pagN (Lambert & Smith, 2008), all present in both serovars (Folkesson Cediranib (AZD2171) et al., 1999; Townsend et al., 2001; Porwollik & McClelland, 2003). A 10 kb fragment downstream of the saf operon is found only in S. Typhi, and includes probable transposase remnants (STY0343 and STY0344, both pseudogenes), the fimbrial operon tcfABCD and genes tinR (STY0349) and tioA (STY0350) (Fig. S1f) (Folkesson et al., 1999; Townsend et al., 2001; Porwollik & McClelland, 2003). The T6SS of S. Typhi contains two pseudogenes, sciI (STY0298) and sciS (STY0308), and some ORFs are missing or divergent, probably rendering its T6SS nonfunctional. Interestingly, sciS was shown to limit the intracellular growth of S. Typhimurium in macrophages at a late stage of infection and to decrease virulence in mice (Parsons & Heffron, 2005).

More specifically if the response could be classified as either p

More specifically if the response could be classified as either patient-centred or product-focused (e.g. educate patients, provide information) or if the context of it did not allow categorisation, the response was placed in the ‘ambiguous’ theme.[34]

After completing the independent analysis, the two researchers worked together to discuss their coding and come to consensus regarding any differences in the individual coding. If a consensus could not be reached, a consultation with a third researcher who was not involved in the initial analysis was used to reach consensus. The second phase of analysis involved word clouding. Word clouding is ‘a visualization of a set of related tags or words in which frequencies of use are reflected visually, often in the size of the text or tag’.[39] This method can be used to analyse any textual check details data to give the reader a chance to see the most commonly used terms in the text. Word clouds have been used mostly in social and commercial settings, however their use in education and research has started recently as the use of word clouds provide a quick way to analyse textual data. Gill and Griffin,[39] who

assessed the efficacy of the word-cloud use in analysing policy documents (Good Medical Practice documents), reported that word-cloud analysis provides a quick and practical way to analyse textual data, helps in reducing the data without bias as it analyses the words as they appear and not as the researcher sees them and suggested that the use of word clouds in different fields of research can provide promising results. In word clouding, font size expresses the frequency of use of different words, i.e. larger font size expresses a higher frequency of use. In the present study, all the most frequently reported word was given the largest font size (24 point). The font sizes of the remainder of the words were calculated by multiplying the largest font size by the frequency of their reporting divided by the highest frequency of reporting. Word clouds were created

using the free software available on During word clouding every effort was made not to alter the terms used by the participants; however, at times it was necessary to merge terms with similar meaning (e.g. medicine, medicines, medication, medications, drug and drugs were merged into ‘medicine’). In the present study word clouding was used to assess the use of patient-care-related terms. For the third phase of analysis comparisons between responses of the participants in each group (Northern Ireland and Alberta) were conducted based on the location of the pharmacy (urban versus rural), the pharmacy type or years in practice. Data were compared using chi-square test. The Northern Ireland Statistics and Research Agency website ( was used to classify the location (urban versus rural) of community pharmacies in Northern Ireland.

The effect of erythromycin on the levels of GFP mRNA, pre-tmRNA,

The effect of erythromycin on the levels of GFP mRNA, pre-tmRNA, and tmRNA in M. smegmatis FPSSRA-1 was assessed in two independent experiments, which gave equivalent results. Representative data from one experiment

are shown in Table 2. The marginal change in GFP mRNA and pre-tmRNA between the baseline and 3-h zero-erythromycin samples was similar to the previously observed fluctuations in pre-tmRNA levels in cells under normal culture conditions (Fig. 2a). The levels of GFP mRNA, pre-tmRNA, and tmRNA increased after 3-h exposure to erythromycin, with the largest relative change being in the pre-tmRNA levels (consistent with previous experiments). Although the erythromycin-associated this website changes in GFP mRNA levels relative to baseline (time 0) were greater VX-809 manufacturer than the changes in tmRNA relative to the 3-h zero-erythromycin samples,

the changes in the two RNA species were equivalent; for example 6.8- and 6.6-fold increase in 16 μg mL−1 erythromycin for GFP mRNA and tmRNA, respectively. This indicated that the changes in ssrA promoter output were equivalent to the changes in tmRNA. Further evidence that the ssrA promoter output could account for the drug-associated changes in tmRNA came from the finding that the absolute levels of GFP mRNA and tmRNA were of the same order of magnitude. Moreover, tmRNA and GFP mRNA levels were at least an order of magnitude higher than levels of pre-tmRNA; the mean ratio of tmRNA : pre-tmRNA was 39 : 1 in the absence of erythromycin (equivalent to previous experiments). These results indicated that the ssrA promoter was highly active constitutively and showed increased activity in the presence of erythromycin. The magnitude of the promoter

output appeared sufficient to account for the increased in tmRNA levels following exposure to erythromycin. Although the results were consistent with an increased synthesis of tmRNA in the presence of erythromycin, the ratio GFP mRNA : tmRNA was 1 : 0.3 in the 3-h samples, irrespective of erythromycin exposure. This suggested that erythromycin did not lead to an increase in rate of tmRNA loss, a result consistent with the lack of effect of erythromycin on tmRNA half-life described previously. Increased tmRNA levels were described previously Phosphatidylinositol diacylglycerol-lyase for other bacteria exposed to antimicrobial agents. Montero et al. (2006) reported that chloramphenicol increased tmRNA levels up to 40-fold in the extremophile T. maritima, and Paleckova et al. (2006) reported that streptomycin increased tmRNA levels by 2.6-fold in S. aureofaciens. However, it was not clear from these studies whether the increased tmRNA levels were the result of increased tmRNA synthesis or of a reduction in tmRNA degradation, or both. Consistent with these studies, M. smegmatis and M. bovis BCG showed elevated tmRNA levels following exposure to ribosome-inhibiting antimicrobial agents.

These results clearly indicated that both IR2 and the downstream

These results clearly indicated that both IR2 and the downstream half-site of IR1 are necessary for the binding of IphR. The requirement of an additional half-site with a palindrome is uncommon in regulator binding sites, but the PcaU binding region is known to contain three perfectly conserved 10 bp repeats (R1, R2, and R3), which form a palindrome (R1 and R2) and a direct repeat (R3) located 11 bp downstream of the palindrome (Popp et al.,

Bortezomib solubility dmso 2002; Jerg & Gerischer, 2008). R3 is a repetition of the half-site of the palindrome (R2) proximal to R3. The binding region of an IclR-type repressor, HmgR, also contains a 17-bp perfect palindromic motif and a 6-bp direct repetition of the palindrome (Arias-Barrau et al., 2004). However, the direct repeat motif located 4 bp upstream of the palindrome is

a repetition of the half-site of the palindrome distal Gefitinib price to the direct repeat motif. Although there was no obvious sequence similarity between the binding regions of IphR and HmgR, and the downstream half-site of IR1 is not a perfect direct repeat of the downstream half-site of IR2, the arrangement of both binding regions appeared to be similar; positions of the palindrome and additional repeat each overlap the transcription start site and −10 region, respectively. IPA and/or its metabolite were suggested to be an inducer of the iph operon by the analyses of promoter and primer extension. We examined the ability of IPA and its analogous substrates: phthalate, TPA, PCA, and 3-hydroxybenzoate (100 µM) to inhibit the ht-IphR binding to the IPH-60 fragment by EMSA. Among these substrates, only IPA abolished the binding of ht-IphR (Fig. 4). In addition, the iphA promoter activity of iphA mutant (DEIA) cells harboring reporter plasmid pZSH2, which accumulates IPA during incubation with IPA, was increased ca. 90-fold (21 ± 2.0 mU mg−1) GPX6 in the presence

of IPA. These results indicated that IPA itself is the specific effector that modulates IphR binding to the operator, acting as an inducer of the iph operon. IphR negatively autoregulates the transcription of IPA catabolic operon, iphACBDR, in E6. In the absence of IPA, IphR binds to the operator region containing an inverted repeat (IR2) and a downstream half-site of another inverted repeat (IR1) to repress the transcription of iph operon. Although further analysis is necessary to clarify the manner of binding of IphR, this regulator protein might bind to the operator as a dimer of dimers, as ht-IphR was suggested to mainly form a dimer in solution. N.K. and K.I. contributed equally to this work. This study has no conflict of interest between authors. “
“The goal of this study was to develop and validate a novel fosmid-clone-based metagenome isotope array approach – termed the community isotope array (CIArray) – for sensitive detection and identification of microorganisms assimilating a radiolabeled substrate within complex microbial communities.

The author also thanks all members of the committee on gynecologi

The author also thanks all members of the committee on gynecologic oncology of the Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology and Dr Wataru Yamagami in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, School of Medicine, Keio University for their contribution to summarizing the data and Ms Miyuki Nakai and Ms Keiko Abe for their secretarial help. There is no conflict of interest. “
“The Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology collects and analyzes annual data on gynecologic cancers from member institutions. Here we present the Patient Annual Report for 2012 ABT-199 price and the Treatment Annual Report for 2006. Data on 7028 patients with cervical cancer, 8217 with endometrial

cancer, 5140 with ovarian cancer and 1725 with ovarian borderline tumor for whom treatment was initiated in 2012 were summarized in the Patient Annual Report. Data on the prognosis of 2699 patients with cervical cancer, 3243 with endometrial cancer and 1898 with ovarian cancer for whom treatment was initiated in 2006 were analyzed in the Treatment Annual Report. In the Patient Annual Report for 2012, stage I accounted for 55.4%, stage II for 23.0%, stage III for 11.0% and stage Selleckchem KU57788 IV for 10.6% of all patients with cervical cancer. Stage I accounted for 72.2%, stage II for 7.0%, stage III for 13.4% and stage IV for 7.3% of all patients with endometrial cancer. Stage I accounted for 43.1%, stage II for 9.2%, stage III

for 29.7% and stage IV for 7.2% of all patients with ovarian cancer. In the Treatment Annual Report for 2006, the 5-year overall survival rates for patients with cervical cancer were 92.9% for stage I, 74.6% for stage II, 55.3% for stage III and 24.3% for stage IV. The equivalent rates for patients with endometrial cancer were 96.3%, 92.7%, 80.6% and

35.8%, respectively; and those for patients with ovarian surface epithelial–stromal tumors were 90.6%, 82.9%, 48.7% and 40.9%, respectively. “
“Among cases of placental abruption registered in the Perinatal Care Database developed by the Committee on Perinatal Care of the Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology, those in which consent for secondary research was obtained, and the diagnosis of cerebral palsy was established based on the results of examination covered by the obstetrical care payment system, have recently been studied, and the results suggest the following: When placental abruption occurs outside the hospital, it frequently becomes severe, involving intrauterine fetal death and requiring maternal blood transfusion. However, as it is a disease occurring irrespective of the time and location and requiring maternal–fetal emergency care, early delivery is indispensable even when it occurs in hospital. Special attention should be paid to decreased fetal movements or their loss, in addition to abdominal pain and bleeding as initial symptoms.