16–19 The innate A3G response

16–19 The innate A3G response selleck screening library is surprisingly long-lasting following immunization in macaques20,21 and this has been attributed to A3G being expressed in CD4+ CD95+ CCR7− effector memory T cells.20 Up-regulation of A3G stimulated

by CD40L is mediated by ligation of CD40 cell-surface molecules on dendritic cells22 and this is also likely to account for A3G regulation in B cells expressing CD40. However, B-cell-derived A3G in vivo has not been studied previously. The signalling pathway following engagement of CD40 by CD40L elicits phosphorylation of IκB kinase complex followed by nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), which initiates class switch recombination by binding to the κB site on IH promoters.23,24

CD40L-bound CD40 also activates extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase inducing A3G mRNA and protein expression.22 Interleukin-4 bound to IL-4 receptor induces phosphorylation of Jak1 and Jak3 kinases, followed by phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of the transcription factor signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT6) leading to class switch recombination.24 Transforming growth factor-β is another B-cell agonist critical in switching IgM to IgA.25 We have pursued a report that appeared after we had completed the project that the AID encoding gene (Aicda) responds to activation with CD40L, IL-4 and TGF-β.26 We confirmed this using human B cells, which showed maximal activation of AID mRNA with the combined three agents selleck kinase inhibitor (2665 ± 1150), compared with TGF-β alone (80·5 ± 18) and extended it to A3G mRNA from 118 ± 45 to 495 ± 88 (P = 0·030) (data not presented). Thalidomide Flow cytometry studies also demonstrated a significant increase in AID expression by the combined TGF-β + CD40L + IL-4-stimulated B cells. The mechanism advanced26 was that region 4 of the AID encoding gene (Aicda) contains the functional binding sites for NF-κB, STAT6 and Smad

3/4, which are response elements to CD40L, IL-4 and TGF-β, respectively.26 This may lead to de-repression of silencers by B-lineage-specific and stimulation-responsive enhancers. Whether this mechanism might also apply to A3G, another deaminase belonging to the same family produced by B cells, needs to be verified. We postulate that A3G produced by B cells is transmitted to CD4+ T cells probably via exosomes, in which A3G is a major component.10 B cells are significant producers of exosomes following activation of cell-surface CD40 and IL-4 receptors27 or interaction with T cells via CD40–CD40L molecules.28 Inhibition of HIV replication has been demonstrated between monocyte-derived exosomes and CD4+ T cells.9 Alternatively, B cells might produce intercellular nanotubes which establish contact with CD4+ T cells.

Iron homeostasis is essential to the sustenance of survival and g

Iron homeostasis is essential to the sustenance of survival and growth of host mycobacteria [32]. Both ML and M. tuberculosis produce bacterioferritins [33, 34], which could be involved in controlling iron homeostasis in these pathogens. Because CD163 is related to Hb clearance, it can be speculated that, in parasitized cells, high CD163 expression may function as a pathway for the supply of iron, which perhaps reflect some of the dissimilarities among the survival mechanisms used by the various mycobacteria. An example is the fact that whereas human Hb is not used

INCB024360 in vivo as an iron source by M. tuberculosis, it may be used for this purpose by M. haemophilum and ML [35]. In the present work, we verified larger iron storage in LL skin biopsies than in tuberculoid ones. Of note, high amounts of iron were only found in LL macrophages and none was detected in epithelioid macrophages whereas small foci of iron deposits in vaguely differentiated macrophages were seen in BT lesions. With reference to a previous description of the accumulation of lipid droplets in LL lesions [36], we could infer that ML associates with lipid vesicles as a mechanism for transferring iron from the host to ML-rich phagosomes. As a whole, our results seem to clearly suggest that, on

the one hand, CD163 may contribute to polarize LL macrophages STA-9090 to an anti-inflammatory phenotype by increasing the expression and levels of the immunoregulatory molecules IL-10 and IDO, although the other primary determinants of polarity in leprosy immune responses need to be better understood. In addition CD163 also contributes to ML uptake and increased amounts eltoprazine of iron, thus favoring bacterial survival and persistence. The acquisition of all specimens was approved by the Human Ethics Committee of the Oswaldo Cruz Foundation in Brazil. Leprosy patients (LL, n = 11 and BT, n = 10) were classified according to Ridley and Jopling

criteria [37]. Buffy coats were obtained from healthy donors (HC) at the Hemotherapy Service of the Clementino Fraga Filho University Hospital, associated with the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil, in accordance with the guidelines set down in the Declaration of Helsinki. The leprosy skin cryostat sections (LL, n = 6 and BT, n = 6) were processed to detect IDO+ and CD163+ cells by immunoperoxidase labeling. Sections were then incubated with polyclonal anti-IDO (Santa Cruz Biotechnology, Santa Cruz, CA, USA (H-110), 1: 50) and anti-CD163 (Santa Cruz Biotechnology (sc-20066), 1: 25). Immunohistochemical staining was performed, as previously demonstrated by De Souza Sales et al. [6].

38 and 2 45, respectively] Using multiple SNPs in the logistic r

38 and 2.45, respectively]. Using multiple SNPs in the logistic regression for covariates, wild-type AhR and mutant AhRR combination was significantly higher in patients (67.8%) than in controls (48.0%) (OR = 2.76). On the other hand, mutant AhRR in combination with GSTM1 null genotype was significantly higher in patients

(35.5%) than in controls (19.3%) (OR = 6.12). Conclusion  Polymorphisms of dioxin receptor complex components and detoxification-related genes jointly confer susceptibility to advanced-stage endometriosis in the Taiwanese Han population. “
“Clostridium difficile is a pathogen responsible for diarrhoea and colitis, particularly after antibiotic treatment. www.selleckchem.com/products/Temsirolimus.html We evaluated the C. difficile protease Cwp84, found to be associated with the S-layer proteins, as a vaccine antigen to limit the C. difficile intestinal colonization and therefore the development of the infection in a clindamycin-treated hamster model. First, we evaluated the immune response and the animal protection against death induced by several immunization routes: rectal, intragastric and subcutaneous. Antibody production was variable according to the immunization routes. In addition, serum Cwp84 antibody titres did not always correlate with animal protection after challenge with a toxigenic this website C. difficile strain. The best survival rate was observed with the rectal route of immunization. Then, in a second assay, we selected

this immunization route to perform a larger immunization assay including a Cwp84 immunized group and a control group. Clostridium difficile intestinal colonization and survival rate, as well as the immune response were examined. Clostridium difficile hamster challenge resulted in a 26% weaker and slower C. difficile intestinal

colonization in the immunized group. Furthermore, hamster survival in the Cwp84 immunized group was 33% greater than that of the control group, with a significant statistical difference. Following the disruption of the normal bowel microbiota by antibiotic therapy, Clostridium difficile colonizes the gut, resulting in a spectrum of diseases ranging many from asymptomatic carriage to pseudomembranous colitis (PMC) (Kelly & LaMont, 1998; Wilcox, 2003). The disease symptoms are mediated by two secreted enterotoxins: TcdA and TcdB. Clostridium difficile is shed in the faeces as spores that persist in the environment and facilitate the colonization of new individuals. Clostridium difficile is thus a particular problem in health care facilities, where transmission easily occurs between patients and from carriers to patients (McFarland et al., 1989). Measures to prevent C. difficile infection (CDI) through patient isolation are costly and have had variable success. Although previously considered rare, the incidences of community-acquired CDI and colitis are on the increase. After the acquisition of C.

918) In the group

918). In the group EPZ 6438 with high expressors, the cytokine answer decreases after glutamine supplementation on average by 17% (Table 2). The IL-2 release in

whole blood samples after stimulation with PMA and ionomycin in relation to the IL-2 genotypes with and without glutamine supplementation is shown in Table 3. The T/T genotype was detected in 47% of the probands, the G/T genotype in 46% and the G/G genotype in 7% of the cases (Table 6). Glutamine supplementation increased IL-2 release in the first tertile of low cytokine expressors. The increase in IL-2 release could not be attributed to a clear distribution of genotypes in this expressor group. A similar situation is also found in the statistics of the medium expressors in the second tertile. The addition of glutamine increased the cytokine release compared to the IL-2 release without glutamine supplementation but it appears that also in this tertile the genotype does not increase the sensitivity of the cytokine release to glutamine. When analysing of the third tertile with high expressors, the glutamine supplementation decreases the release of cytokines, and the genotype does not affect the release of IL-2 either with or without glutamine supplementation. In summary, one can say that there is no significant interaction of the genotype

to the IL-2 release. In addition to this, there is no significant relationship Ponatinib research buy between the interaction of IL-2 genotypes and the IL-2 release under the influence of glutamine in our collective (n = 91). A stimulating effect of glutamine on the IL-2 release in the first and second tertile of low and medium expressors was crotamiton independent of the genotype identified. The TNF-α release in dependence of glutamine supplementation is shown in Table 4. Depending on the level of low, medium and high cytokine release, the TNF-α release was also divided into tertiles with low, medium and high cytokine expressors. The analysis of the tertiles shows that the TNF-α release is increased by a glutamine supplementation in the first

tertile (low expressors) by 23% and decreases in the second and third tertile (medium and high expressors) by 9% and 11% (Table 4). The variations of the TNF-α release are very large in all tertiles, so no clear correlation between the amount of glutamine concentration and the levels of a TNF-α cytokine release can be determined. The glutamine supplementation effects on the entire subject panel (n = 87), a reduction in TNF-α release of 6%. No effect of glutamine on the TNF-α release can be shown. The TNF-α release in whole blood after stimulation with PMA and ionomycin in relation to the TNF-α genotypes with and without glutamine supplementation is shown in Table 5. In 66% of the cases in our collective, the G/G genotype was found. The G/A genotype was detected in 28% and the A/A genotype in 6% of the cases (Table 6).

The association of positive serological AMA in PBC patients with

The association of positive serological AMA in PBC patients with recurrent UTIs suggest a bacteria aetiology in PBC [7]. The hypothesis buy Deforolimus that E. coli is a cause of PBC was first proposed in 1984, based on the higher prevalence of this bacterium in women in PBC when compared with age-matched women with other chronic liver diseases [13]. More recently, Varyani et al. reported that recurrent UTIs are present within 1 year prior to the diagnosis of in 29% of patients in PBC compared to 17% of non-PBC chronic liver disease controls [14]. This hypothesis is also supported by the

demonstration of T and B cell cross-reactivity between AMA epitopes and E. coli PDC-E2 sequences [24, 27, 41]. The induction of autoimmune

diseases is considered to Cytoskeletal Signaling inhibitor be the result of complex interactions between genetic traits and environmental factors, including microbial infections [42]. The microbial aetiology of PBC is poorly defined and the pathogenic mechanisms of biliary injury in PBC remain largely unknown. Clues indicating a microbial aetiological component to the pathogenesis of PBC were based largely on experimental evidence of B and T cell cross-reactivity between the major mitochondrial autoantigens and their mimicking microbial antigenic epitopes [27, 29, 43-50]. Additional support comes from epidemiological studies, case reports or molecular evidence of the presence of microbial or viral agents in the liver or bile specimens of patients with PBC [13, 29, 50-52]. Several hypothetical mechanisms, such as bystander activation of autoreactive cells, induction of proinflammatory cytokines by microbial antigens and molecular mimicry between the microorganism and the host have been proposed to explain how microbes initiate autoimmunity [9-12]. Among these hypotheses, the theory of molecular mimicry has been addressed rigorously Flucloronide in PBC, which is based on the shared linear amino acid sequences or a conformational fit (for B cell cross-reactivity), or a motif (for T cell cross-reactivity) between a bacterial antigen and human ‘self’-antigen

[2, 28, 44, 53, 54]. An immune response directed against the mimicking microbial determinants may cross-react with the self-protein(s), and such autoreactivity may cause injury in targeted cells leading to cell destruction and, ultimately, autoimmune disease. In line with the theory of molecular mimicry, previously reported AMA cross-reactivity between the human PDC-E2 and its microbial counterparts in E. coli, N. aro and Lactobacillus delbrueckii suggested that PBC could be induced by exposure to these bacterial antigens [28, 42, 44, 55]. In addition, the identification of the 16S rRNA gene in livers from patients with PBC suggests that Propionibacterium acnes could be involved in granuloma formation in PBC [56].

Clinical scores were analysed using the non-parametric Mann–Whitn

Clinical scores were analysed using the non-parametric Mann–Whitney U-test. The level of significance was set at P < 0·05. EAE was induced in C57BL/6 mice by immunization with the MOG35–55 peptide in CFA followed by i.v. injection of PT. EAE mice exhibited three disease phases: preclinical, peak and remission phases. AG-014699 nmr Clinical signs (partial limp tail) presented at 7 dpi. Disease

then progressed to limp tail, waddling gait and paralysis during the peak phases (at 16 dpi). Finally, mice recovered but still presented with clinical signs during the remission phases (at 28 dpi). CFA mice showed no clinical signs at all (Fig. 1a). Lymph node MNCs were isolated from 7 dpi EAE and CFA mice and then co-cultured with astrocytes at lymphocyte : astrocyte ratios of 10:1, 1:1, and 1:5. At the lymphocyte : astrocyte ratios tested there were no differences in proliferation among cells isolated from the CFA group, with the exception of CD3/CD28 and concanavalin A (ConA)-stimulated cells (Fig. 1b). Conversely, lymphocytes isolated

from EAE mice proliferated significantly in response to stimulation with MOG35–55 peptide (P < 0·001). In the EAE lymphocyte : astrocyte co-cultured group, lymphocyte proliferation was inhibited by half at a ratio of 10:1 (P < 0·01) and inhibited completely at ratios of 1:1 and 1:5 (P < 0·001) compared to proliferation observed for MOG35–55 peptide-stimulated EAE lymphocytes alone. These data indicate that the inhibitory effect of astrocytes on MOG35–55-specific lymphocytes is correlated with lymphocyte : astrocyte ratios. Lymphocytes were then co-cultured with astrocytes PF2341066 at a lymphocyte : astrocyte Isoconazole ratio of 10 : 1. Supernatants were obtained 72 h later and cytokine levels were detected by ELISA. In the supernatants collected from EAE lymphocyte : astrocyte cultures, IFN-γ (P < 0·001) and IL-17 (P < 0·001) levels were decreased significantly; IL-4 and TGF-β levels were also decreased compared to levels observed for EAE lymphocytes. There were no significant differences in cytokine production by cells harvested from mice

in the CFA groups. Levels of the above cytokines were lower in the supernatants of astrocytes cultured alone (Fig. 1c). The suppressing effect of astrocyte on MOG35–55-specific lymphocytes might be mediated by soluble factors as well as cell contact. We cultured astrocyte and MOG35–55-specific lymphocytes without contact between both cells using Transwell plates. Supernatants were taken out to test cytokine levels after 72 h. Results are shown in Fig. 1d. Significant reductions of IFN-γ (P < 0·001) and IL-17 (P < 0·001) levels were also observed at the co-culture group without contact between both cells. These results suggest that cell contact is not required in astrocyte-mediated suppression of lymphocyte secreting, and might be mediated by soluble factors. Astrocytes were incubated in the presence or absence of IFN-γ and then co-cultured with lymphocytes for 72 h.

Conclusion: In selected diabetic population, incidence of NDRD wa

Conclusion: In selected diabetic population, incidence of NDRD was 75% and all patients had type 2 DM. Wide spectrum of different categories of renal diseases in diabetics depend on usual prevalence of renal diseases in general population according to geographical and ethnic characterstics and underlying

diabetes mellitus has no bearing on development of specific type of NDRD. Patients with NDRD had shorter duration of diabetes and lesser prevalence of hypertension.None of the seven clinical and laboratory criteria including absence of diabetic retinopathy, considered buy CYC202 atypical for a diabetic nephropathy patient, which led to suspicion of underlying NDRD, could strongly predict occurrence of the same. So renal biopsy is the only investigation presently available to make a definitive diagnosis of NDRD. GOPLANI KAMAL R1,2, KASWAN KAMAL K3, GERA DINESH N5, SHAH PANKAJ R5, VANIKAR ARUNA V6, PATEL HIMANSHU V4, GUMBER MANOJ R5, KUTE VIVEK B4, TRIVEDI HARGOVIND L7 1Shalby Hospitals, Ahmedabad; 2Hon.Associate Professor Civil Hospital Ahmedabad; 3Consultant Nephrologist, Narayan Hrudayala, Jaipur, India; 4Assistant Professor Nephrology, IKDRC-ITS,

Ahmedabad India; 5Professor, Dept. of Nephrology, IKDRC-ITS, Ahmedabad; 6Professor, Dept Of Pathology, IKDRC-ITS, Ahmedabad; 7Director, IKDRC-ITS, Ahmedabad Introduction: Rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis(RPGN) is one of the most calamitous conditions in the nephrology where patients can progress from normal renal function to end stage renal failure within weeks. Patients and renal survival is significantly dependent on early proper management. Recognition of proper etiology & extent of pathology see more by early renal biopsy is essential in advance to decide timely treatment of these patients for proper salvageability. Aim of the study: To study the epidemiology of RPGN

atour centre.To study the response of aggressive treatment modalities like cytotoxic drugs and plasmapharesis. Methods: This is a prospective study of profile of rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis. Cases admitted to our institute between Aug. 2008 to Dec. 2010 were included. Mean follow up duration was 209 +/-135 days.All patients were treated with Steroids+ Cyclophosphamide+/− G protein-coupled receptor kinase plasmapharesis. Results: Of total 86 patients mean age 30.23 + 34.16 yrs. Male : Female ratio 1:1.Commonest presenting symptom was oligouria(76.92%) macroscopic hematuria in 86.54%, microscopic hematuria in 86.54%.Mean duration of illness before diagnosis was 21.19 + 35.8 days. Pauciimmune GN was the most common etiology with 24.41% followed by PIGN in 22.09%, Lupus in 17.44%, IgA in 15.11% and MPGN in 12.79%.ANCA negative pauciummune GN was equal in number to ANCA +ve GN. 75% required dialysis on presentation.Complete renal recovery was present in 41.86% while partial renal recovery was present in 30.23%, while 27.90% progressed to end stage renal disease. Plasma exchange was done in 22 patients out of which 12 had renal recovery.

Only CD4 + T-cell counts < 100 cells/mm3 reached statistical sign

Only CD4 + T-cell counts < 100 cells/mm3 reached statistical significance in multivariate analysis as a predictor of this website the risk of cryptosporidiosis. It is clear that CD4 + T-lymphocytes are necessary for resolution of cryptosporidiosis. The risk of Cryptosporidiosis in

immunosuppressed patients correlates with CD4 + T-lymphocytes counts (23, 24). In the present study, the majority of infections occurred in HIV positive individuals (63.3%), of whom 57% had CD4 + T-lymphocytes counts < 100 cells/mm3. The evidence indicates that Cryptosporidium does not pose a particular risk to cancer patients in general. The exception to this rule seems to be leukemia and other hematological malignancies (25, 26). The severe disease seen in bone marrow transplant patients usually appears to depend on and reflect the underlying diagnosis for which the transplant was performed (4). The introduction and use of HAART for immune reconstitution has dramatically

learn more reduced the incidence of cryptosporidiosis in HIV/AIDS patients. However, HAART is still not widely available in many non-industrialized countries, where cryptosporidiosis remains an important emerging disease (2). In conclusion, the results of this study indicate that the presence of Cryptosporidium may be high among HIV infected patients, patients with hematological malignancies (especially ALL and CLL) and in bone marrow transplant patients, many living in Isfahan province, central Iran; however, evaluation of immunocompromised patients in other areas is required.

In addition, cryptosporidiosis is more likely to be present in patients with particular signs and symptoms, such as diarrhea, weight loss, and dehydration. Moreover, we recommend that patients with CD4 + T-lymphocyte counts < 100 cells/mm3 be assessed for cryptosporidiosis. Our overall recommendation is to consider cryptosporidiosis as a cause of diarrhea in HIV infected patients and patients with CD4 + T-lymphocyte counts < 100cells/mm3. Additional precautions, including avoiding contact with diarrheal individuals among their household members, may help to prevent fecal-oral transmission. We would like to acknowledge all who collaborated in this study, especially the patients who provided specimens. The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest related to this study. "
“To determine the interplay between fetal antigenicity and local maternal factors in determining reproductive tract T regulatory (Treg) cell accumulation during pregnancy. Examination of maternal Treg composition in the uterus, cervix, and uteroplacental interface (UPI) of murine syngeneic and allogeneic pregnancies and non-pregnant controls by flow cytometry. The impact of fetal antigenicity was defined by either fetal gender in syngeneic pregnancies or by allogeneic paternity.

GraphPad Prism version 5·0 software was used for statistical anal

GraphPad Prism version 5·0 software was used for statistical analyses. Results are expressed as mean ± standard deviation (s.d.). Relationships between different values were examined by Pearson’s correlation coefficient. A proportion of cell subsets were compared using Student’s t-test for normally or non-normally distributed subsets as appropriate. Statistical significance Rucaparib datasheet was expressed by a P-value of < 0·05. MSCs isolated from

SSc patients were characterized by expressing the surface molecules CD90, CD105 and CD73. They did not express CD45, CD34 and CD14, as assessed by flow cytometry analysis. Moreover, MSCs showed normal ability in differentiating into osteoblast, adipocytes and chondroblast STI571 in vitro (data not shown). The cumulative population doublings for MSCs isolated from SSc patients, as markers of the replication

rate, was consistently lower than that of HC cells (HC–MSCs 3·07 ± 0·38 versus SSc–MSCs 2·42 ± 0·16, P < 0·0070; Fig. 1a). In order to assess whether this reduced proliferation of SSc–MSCs was due to a growth-arrested status and the different cell cycle distributions with respect to HC cells, both SSc and HC–MSCs were analysed by flow cytometry after DNA staining with PI. Of note, no significant differences were observed between HC– and SSc–MSC, as cell cycle analysis revealed that the large percentage of MSCs obtained from both HC and SSc were in G0/G1 phases [HC–MSCs 80·23 ± 1·79 versus SSc–MSCs 83·00 ± 3·33%, P = not significant (n.s.)]; on the contrary, only a small population of cells were engaged in active proliferation (S+G2/M phases: HC–MSCs 18·75 ± 2·09 versus SSc–MSCs 15·65 ± 3·41%, Proteasome inhibitor P = n.s., Fig. 1b), although not significantly. Because the above method does not distinguish between actively growing (G1) and growth-arrested (G0) cells, to distinguish more effectively between proliferative and resting

cells we assessed Ki67 gene expression by qPCR analysis. We found that MSCs isolated from SSc patients showed a lower expression of Ki67 gene when compared to HC cells (HC–MSCs 3·44 ± 0·20 versus SSc–MSCs 1·57 ± 0·53 mRNA levels, P = 0·019), confirming that the majority of cells was in G0 phase (Fig. 1c). No differences were observed in the proliferative ability of SSc–MSCs between the two disease subsets. Given the functional implications of the in-vitro senescence of MSCs, we employed β-Gal as a senescence marker. We observed that the percentage of β-Gal-positive stained cells was significantly higher in SSc when compared to HC (HC–MSCs 7·67 ± 4·41% versus SSc–MSCs 26·00 ± 4·34%, P = 0·03, Fig. 2a). Furthermore, we cultured both HC and SSc cells for 24 h in the presence of 5 μg/ml of doxorubicin, which represents a well-accepted in-vitro model to recreate the premature ageing of stem cells [29].


Benefits IWR 1 of MSC administration in models of autoimmunity and allotransplantation indicate corresponding in vivo effects 2, 4, 14, 32, 33. Nonetheless, some basic issues regarding MSC/T-cell interactions remain incompletely elucidated including the relative potency of MSC suppression of primary compared with secondary T-cell activation, MSC influence on individual T-cell effector programmes, the relative importance of the wide diversity of mediators that have been linked with

T-cell inhibition and the balance between direct T-cell effects and indirect inhibition mediated via APCs. In the current study we have addressed such issues with a focus on the Th17 differentiation pathway – a pro-inflammatory Th cell effector phenotype with pathogenic potential in a range of immune-mediated diseases 28, 29. We demonstrate that low numbers of MSCs are capable of suppressing de novo Th17 differentiation through a mechanism that is initiated most potently by MSC/T-cell contact but is subsequently mediated by PGE2 acting via the EP4 receptor. In contrast

to other reported T-cell inhibitory phenomena 17, 19, we find that IFN-γ-mediated triggering of MSCs was not necessary for Th17 suppression. Furthermore, we demonstrate suppression by MSCs of Th17 differentiation from both naïve- and memory-phenotype precursors as well selleckchem as inhibition of IL-17A production by naturally occurring effector-memory Th17 cells in a model of acute tissue inflammation. Our initial observations of MSC effects on in vitro-generated Th17 cells from mouse both confirm and extend results recently reported by Ghannam et al. for human cells 9. In agreement with this study, we observed that mouse MSCs inhibited the primary differentiation of Th17 cells from naïve precursors and that MSC co-culture resulted in reduced IL-17A production by T cells during MSC-free re-stimulation 9. Regarding the question of whether MSC suppressive effects are exerted directly upon CD4+ T cells undergoing Th17

differentiation, experiments in an APC-culture system effectively rule out an intermediary role for DCs, macrophages or other accessory cells. As only a fraction of the CD4+ T cells within primary cultures were IL-17A+ by intracellular staining at a given time, we cannot definitively Meloxicam rule out a role for an additional T-cell population in suppressing the Th17 differentiation programme. Nonetheless, cross-regulation by Th1 or Th2 effectors during primary Th17 induction cultures is highly unlikely given the continuous blockade of IFN-γ and IL-4. Furthermore, and in contrast to the findings of Ghannam et al. 9, we did not detect induction of FOXP3+ or IL-10+ T cells in experiments carried out using FACS-purified, naïve-phenotype CD4+ T cells co-cultured with MSCs under Th17-skewing conditions (data not shown).