The results indicate HIF-1 activation that the quinones derived from oxidation of 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid and 3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde participate in Michael addition reactions with 3-hydroxy-1H-phenalene-1-one and via ECE and ECEC mechanisms convert to the different products, with good yield under controlled potential conditions, at carbon electrode.”
“Cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 plays an important role in inflammatory reaction and human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is known to induce COX-2 gene expression. However, little is known for the mechanism of COX-2 gene expression by HCMV. In this study, three recently isolated
HCMV strains including TB40/E and clinical isolates from Korean patients as well as highly laboratory adapted strain AD169 were used to stimulate COX-2 induction. Western blot analyses revealed that recently isolated HCMV strains induced COX-2 expression in human foreskin fibroblast (HFF) cells to find protocol higher levels than lab-adapted strain AD169. HCMV gene expression was not required for COX-2 induction since UV-inactivated virus was able to stimulate COX-2 gene expression during immediate early infection. Moreover, when HCMV-infected HFF cells were transfected with small interfering RNA for major immediate early (MIE) genes, HCMV-induced COX-2 expression was not abrogated, suggesting that HCMV MIE genes are
not needed for COX-2 expression. In order to understand the signal pathways involved in COX-2 gene expression induced by HCMV, selective inhibitors were used. When HCMV-infected HFF cells were treated with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) kinase KPT-8602 chemical structure inhibitors and c-Raf/mitogen-activated protein kinases
(MAPK, MEK) 1/2 inhibitors, HCMV-induced COX-2 expression was diminished. However, COX-2 expression by HCMV infection was not inhibited if HCMV-infected HFF cells were treated with inhibitors of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase, c-Jun N-terminal kinase, nuclear factor kappa B, p-38 MAPK and Rho-associated protein kinase. We concluded that EGFRK, Raf, MEK1/2 and extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK 1/2) pathway may participate in the COX-2 mediated inflammatory response to HCMV infection. (C) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“The rise of private food standards has brought forth an ongoing debate about whether they work as a barrier for smallholders and hinder poverty reduction in developing countries. This paper uses a global value chain approach to explain the relationship between value chain structure and agrifood safety and quality standards and to discuss the challenges and possibilities this entails for the upgrading of smallholders. It maps four potential value chain scenarios depending on the degree of concentration in the markets for agrifood supply (farmers and manufacturers) and demand (supermarkets and other food retailers) and discusses the impact of lead firms and key intermediaries on smallholders in different chain situations.