“PURPOSE The Canadian Primary Care Sentinel Surveillance Network (CPCSSN) is Canada’s first national
chronic disease surveillance system based on electronic health record (EHR) data. The purpose of this study was to develop and validate case definitions and case-finding algorithms used to identify 8 common chronic conditions in primary care: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), dementia, depression, diabetes, hypertension, osteoarthritis, parkinsonism, and epilepsy. METHODS Using a cross-sectional data validation study design, regional and local CPCSSN networks from British Columbia, Alberta (2), Ontario, Nova Scotia, and Newfoundland participated in validating EHR case-finding algorithms. A random sample of EHR charts were reviewed, oversampling for patients Z-IETD-FMK mw older than 60 years and for those with epilepsy or parkinsonism. Charts were reviewed by trained research assistants and residents who were blinded to the algorithmic diagnosis. Sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values (PPVs, NPVs) were calculated. RESULTS We obtained data from 1,920 charts from 4 different EHR systems (Wolf, Med Access, Nightingale, and PS Suite). For the total sample, sensitivity ranged from 78% (osteoarthritis) to more than 95% (diabetes, epilepsy, and parkinsonism);
specificity was greater than 94% for all diseases; PPV ranged Alvespimycin in vivo from 72% (dementia) to 93% (hypertension); NPV ranged from 86% (hypertension) to greater than 99% (diabetes, dementia, epilepsy, and parkinsonism). CONCLUSIONS The CPCSSN diagnostic algorithms showed excellent sensitivity and specificity for hypertension, diabetes, epilepsy, and parkinsonism and acceptable values for the other conditions. CPCSSN data are appropriate for use in public health surveillance, primary care, and health services research, as well as to inform policy for these diseases.”
“Chronic hypoxia in the tubulointerstitium
serves as a final common pathway in progressive renal disease. Circumstantial evidence suggests that hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1 in the ischemic tubules may be functionally inhibited in a chronic kidney disease (CKD) milieu. In this study, we hypothesized that indoxyl sulfate (IS), a uremic toxin, Compound C in vitro impairs the cellular hypoxic response. In human kidney (HK-2) proximal tubular cells, IS reduced the hypoxic induction of HIF-1 target genes. This effect was not associated with quantitative changes in the HIF-1 protein, but with functional impairment of the HIF-1 C-terminal transactivation domain (CTAD). Among factors that impeded the recruitment of transcriptional coactivators to the HIF-1CTAD, IS markedly up-regulated Cbp/p300-interacting transactivator with Glu/Asp-rich carboxy-terminal domain 2 (CITED2) through a mechanism of post-transcriptional mRNA stabilization involving the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 pathway.