Conclusions: The safety and efficacy of radiofrequency catheter a

Conclusions: The safety and efficacy of radiofrequency catheter ablation for pediatric AVNRT demonstrated in this study support its continued application and should not be abandoned as a method of treatment. (PACE 2010; 6-10).”
“Defining precisely

the site of seizure onset has important implications for our understanding of the pathophysiology of temporal lobe epilepsy, as well as for the surgical treatment of the disorder. Removal of the limbic areas of the medial temporal lobe has led to a high rate of seizure control, but the relatively large number of patients for whom seizure control is incomplete, as well as the low rate of surgical cure, Suggests that the focus extends beyond the Usual limits of surgical resection. Reevaluation of the extent of the pathology, as well as new data PR-171 mouse from animal models, Suggests that the seizure focus extends, at least in some cases, beyond the hippocampus and amygdala, which are usually removed at the time of surgery. In this review. we examine current information about the pathology and physiology of mesial temporal Selleckchem YM155 lobe epilepsy syndrome, with special emphasis on the

distribution of the changes and patterns of seizure onset. We then propose a hypothesis for the nature of the seizure focus in this disorder and discuss its clinical implications, with the ultimate goal of improving surgical outcomes and developing nonsurgical therapies that may improve seizure control. (C) 2008 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“The effects of O vacancy (V(O)) on the electronic and magnetic properties of Co-doped ZnO are examined through first-principles total-energy calculations. Our results suggest that due to the presence of V(O), O 2p states are coupled with the Co 3d states. Co 3d empty minority states are broadened and move up towards the Fermi level. V(O) at metastable

sites can induce the ferromagnetic (FM) coupling between nearest-neighbor (NN) Co ions, and the atoms around the FM-coupled NN Co ions are spin-polarized which leads to the long-ranged FM coupling between Co ions. Our results based on first-principles total-energy calculations give a possible explanation for the controversial magnetic properties of Co-doped ZnO reported Acalabrutinib molecular weight in the literature.”
“Methods and Results: Twenty six patients (males: seven; age: 51 +/- 15 years) underwent slow pathway ablation with magnetic navigation (MN) system (Niobe, Stereotaxis Inc., St. Louis, MO, USA) and were compared to a control group of 11 patients (males: three; age: 53 +/- 16 years) treated with conventional manual ablation. A 4-mm nonirrigated tip catheter was used in both groups with a maximum of 30 W and 60 degrees C. Acute success was obtained in all patients. In the MN group, three patients out of 24 had no junctional beat (JB) at all and seven patients had 10 or less JB. In contrast, in the conventional group no patient had less than 10 JB.

Our observations support the idea that although IL-10 is importan

Our observations support the idea that although IL-10 is important for creating a permissive environment for post-transplant lymphoma development, IL-6 is associated with PTLD proliferation. The analysis of lymphocyte subsets further identified HLA-DR+ CD8+ lymphocyte numbers as significantly different in non-PTLD controls (33%), treatment responders (44%) and nonresponders (70%). Although the specificity of these cells is unclear, their increase might correlate with the impaired tumor-specific cytotoxic-T-lymphocyte (CTL)-response in PTLD.”
“To test the hypothesis that a considerable number of preterm infants

acquire respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) within the hospital during the postnatal stay, a prospective epidemiologic survey was performed. Nasopharyngeal swabs were taken twice weekly for a AZD3965 research buy period of 8 weeks from preterm infants, medical/nursing staff, and parents during the peak of RSV season 2007/2008 and tested for RSV by polymerase chain reaction. Of 1002 samples, only 4 tested positive (2 from a patient, 2 from staff). Sequence analyses of the G protein demonstrated that nosocomial transmission

did not occurr between these individuals.”
“The aim of this analysis was to provide an update on the current trend in living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) for adult recipients in the model of end stage liver disease (MELD) era in Germany and to encourage a wider implementation Fer-1 cost of LDLT. We descriptively analysed the data of LDLTs in Germany from 15 December 2006 to 31 December 2009 using a multi-center retrospective analysis via a questionnaire and

data provided by Eurotransplant. Ten German centers performed LDLTs in adults. Eighty four transplantations in 50 male recipients and 34 female recipients were performed during the review period, ranging from 1 to 16 LDLTs per center. Hepatocellular carcinoma in cirrhosis (15/84) was the most common transplantation indication. The recipient mean lab-MELD score was 15 (+/- 8). Six re-transplantations were necessary after initial LDLTs. The 1-year patient survival was 81%. BIIB057 We obtained data of 79/84 donors. The incidence of complications was 30.4% (n = 24). There were no grade 5 complications according to the Clavien classification. LDLT is an established treatment option that may reduce the waiting time, provides high quality split liver grafts and should be advocated in the MELD era to reduce organ shortage and ‘death on the waiting list’.”
“Thirty-eight previously healthy, well-appearing children with severe neutropenia (absolute neutrophil count less than 500/mm(3)), and fever were analyzed. Blood cultures were negative in all cases; a bacterial infection was found in 2 children and it was readily diagnosed on clinical grounds at their first visit. Antibiotic therapy was started in only 14 patients. All children recovered uneventfully.

Tubo-ovarian adhesion rate was compared during cesarean section o

Tubo-ovarian adhesion rate was compared during cesarean section or during repeat laparoscopy.

There was no statistical difference between the two groups in terms of clinical and biochemical response, ovulation rate and pregnancy rate. Postoperatively, tubo-ovarian adhesions could be assessed in 36.3% of the patients selleck chemicals and no adhesions were found in a single case in either group.

Unilateral drilling cauterization of ovary is equally efficacious

as bilateral drilling in inducing ovulation and achieving pregnancy. Unilateral ovarian drilling may be a suitable option in clomiphene citrate resistant infertility patient of PCOS which can replace bilateral ovarian drilling with the potential advantage of decreasing the chances of adhesion formation.”
“Objectives: To quantify the improvement in health outcomes in patients after total knee replacement (TKR).

Methods: This was a two-year non-randomized prospective observational study in knee osteoarthritis (OA) patients undergone TKR. Patients were interviewed one week before, six months after, and two years after surgery using a standardized questionnaire including the SF-36, the Oxford Knee Score (OKS), and the Knee Society Clinical Rating Scale (KSS). A generalized estimating equation (GEE) model was used to estimate the magnitudes of the changes with and without the adjustment of age, ethnicity, BMI, and years

with OA.

Results: A total Selleckchem Crenolanib of 298 (at baseline), 176 (at six-months), and 111 (at two-years) eligible patients were included in the analyses. All the scores changed significantly over time, with the exception of SF-36 social functioning, vitality, and mental health. With the adjustment of covariates, the magnitude of changes in these scores was similar to those without the adjustment.

Conclusions: Both general and knee-specific physical functioning had been significantly improved after TKR, while other health domains have not been substantially improved after the surgery.”
“Medical-grade polyvinyl chloride was modified with sodium ampicillin in a concentration range from 0 to 5 wt

% by solvent casting technique using cyclohexanone and N,N-dimethylformamide. The obtained polymeric systems were characterized by optical microscopy, tensile test, and scanning electron microscopy. in addition, in vitro antibacterial activity against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria was determined by an agar diffusion test. Antibiotic release experiments were performed in distilled water and physiological saline solution, which were monitored by UV-vis spectroscopy. The results showed a crucial role of the solvent on the morphology, antibacterial activity, and releasing characteristic of the ampicillin. Furthermore, a mathematical model was applied to data obtained from release study, to characterize the release kinetics of the ampicillin from the polyvinyl chloride-antibiotic systems. (C) 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Finally, the semiconducting behavior

of the films, experi

Finally, the semiconducting behavior

of the films, experienced by previous optical studies, was confirmed through electrical S3I-201 measurements, which also indicate the dependence of the resistivity with the atomic composition of the films. (C) 2010 American Institute of Physics. [doi: 10.1063/1.3520661]“
“A highly novel nano-CaCO(3) supported beta-nucleating agent was employed to prepare beta-nucleated isotactic polypropylene (iPP) blend with polyamide (PA) 66, beta-nucleated iPP/PA66 blend, as well as its compatibilized version with maleic anhydride grafted PP (PP-g-MA), maleic anhydride grafted polyethylene-octene (POE-g-MA), and polyethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA-g-MA), respectively. Nonisothermal crystallization behavior and melting characteristics of beta-nucleated iPP and its VS-6063 chemical structure blends were investigated by differential scanning calorimeter and wide angle X-ray diffraction. Experimental results indicated that the crystallization temperature (T(c)(p)) of PP shifts to high temperature in the non-nucleated PP/PA66 blends because of the alpha-nucleating effect of PA66. T(c)(p) of PP and the beta-crystal

content (K(beta)) in beta-nucleated iPP/PA66 blends not only depended on the PA66 content, but also on the compatibilizer type. Addition of PP-g-MA and POE-g-MA into beta-nucleated iPP/PA66 blends increased the beta-crystal content; however, EVA-g-MA is not benefit for the formation of beta-crystal in the compatibilized beta-nucleated iPP/PA66 blend. It can be relative to the different interfacial interactions between PP and compatibilizers. The nonisothermal crystallization kinetics of PP in the blends Tariquidar research buy was evaluated by Mo’s method. (C) 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 119: 3566-3573, 2011″
“Several studies compared blood pressure (BP) at home (HBP) with ambulatory BP (ABP), but using different devices, which contribute to differences in measured BP. A novel dual-mode device allowing ABP and HBP monitoring (Microlife WatchBPO3) was validated according to the European Society of Hypertension International Protocol and used to compare the two methods. In the validation study, 33 subjects were assessed

with simultaneous BP measurements taken by 2 observers (connected mercury sphygmomanometers) 4 times, sequentially with 3 measurements taken using the tested device. Absolute observer-device BP differences were classified within 5/10/15mmHg zones. Measurements with <= 5 mm Hg difference were calculated per participant. In the validation study, the device produced 70/89/96 measurements within 5/10/15mmHg, respectively, for systolic BP and 67/95/99 for diastolic BP. Twenty-eight subjects had at least two of their systolic BP differences <= 5 mm Hg and one subject had no difference <= 5 mm Hg, whereas for diastolic BP, it was 22 and 1 subjects, respectively. Mean device-observers BP difference was -0.3 +/- 5.6/-2.4 +/- 4.8 mm Hg (systolic/diastolic).

7%, 76 8%, 85 3% and a specificity of 81 9%, 83 8%, 81 4%, respec

7%, 76.8%, 85.3% and a specificity of 81.9%, 83.8%, 81.4%, respectively.

CONCLUSIONS: Mechanical PEF may be a reasonable method of screening for

airflow obstruction in settings where spirometry is unavailable.”
“Purpose of the research: This paper outlines the importance SBE-β-CD Microbiology inhibitor of interpersonal familial relationships in how people experience cancer.

Methods and sample: This paper draws on data from a longitudinal, qualitative study which aimed to explore the experiences of people with cancer within the first year following diagnosis. The sample included fifteen men with colorectal cancer, 3 women with colorectal cancer, twelve women with breast cancer, nine women with gynaecological cancer, six women with lung cancer, eleven men with lung cancer and ten men with prostate cancer. Four people died during the course of the study and ten people TPCA-1 ic50 chose to withdraw.

Key results: Close interpersonal relationships were clearly core mediating features in how the illness was experienced; for example, presenting for symptom investigation was often the result

of ongoing interaction and debate between partners. We use the idea of the joint ownership of cancer’ to elucidate the role of relationships in experiencing and understanding the disease. We propose a re-working of the notion of a whole-systems approach to include not just partnership working within health and social care agencies, but centralising the patient’s interpersonal relationships as critical in each aspect of their experience of cancer.


The findings are discussed in terms of the need for service delivery and research to be mindful of the relational aspects and implications of illness. Nurses can play a key role check details in how this is operationalised in supporting people affected by cancer in the context of their relationships. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Rodents show robust behavioral responses to odors, including strong preferences or aversions for certain odors. The neural mechanisms underlying the effects of odors on these behaviors in animals are not well understood. Here, we provide an initial proof-of-concept study into the role of the olfactory tubercle (OT), a structure with known anatomical connectivity with both brain reward and olfactory structures, in regulating odor-motivated behaviors. We implanted c57bl/6 male mice with an ipsilateral bipolar electrode into the OT to administer electric current and thereby yield gross activation of the OT. We confirmed that electrical stimulation of the OT was rewarding, with mice frequently self-administering stimulation on a fixed ratio schedule. In a separate experiment, mice were presented with either fox urine or peanut odors in a three-chamber preference test. In absence of OT stimulation, significant preference for the peanut odor chamber was observed which was abolished in the presence of OT stimulation.

Purpose: The aim of the study was to evaluate whether changing th

Purpose: The aim of the study was to evaluate whether changing the level of tinnitus in the SSD ear by disenabling or enabling the CI changes the speech reception in noise in the non-tinnitus ear.

Methods and Patients: Fifteen CI users (MED-EL multichannel) with SSD and incapacitating tinnitus participated. They had an initial score of 6 or greater out of 10 on the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and an average total score of 58.05 (standard deviation [SD], 13.68) on the Tinnitus Questionnaire. The outcome measure, speech reception threshold (SRT) in noise using an adaptive procedure was measured in the nontinnitus ear

using insert earphones. The measurements were performed with a high tinnitus level and a low tinnitus level in the SSD ear, realized by switching the CI off or on. Tinnitus loudness was assessed on a

VAS, and tinnitus loudness was also matched using Dibutyryl-cAMP nmr an audiometer.

Results: Speech reception in noise is significantly worse in case of high tinnitus loudness. Crenigacestat cell line The mean difference in SRT in the nontinnitus ear between the 2 conditions (SRTCI off-SRTCI on) of the 15 subjects was 1.98 dB SNR (SD, 3.01 dB SNR). The mean tinnitus loudness on the VAS was 7.2 (SD, 2.6) in the CI-off condition. In the CI-on condition, the mean VAS score significantly declined to 3.4 (SD, 2.5). Also, the tinnitus loudness match improved from 22 dB SL (SD, 14.4 dB SL) to 10 dB SL (SD, 10.1 dB SL) in the CI-on condition.

Conclusion: Unilateral tinnitus can significantly decrease speech reception in noise in the nontinnitus ear.”
“The chemical investigation of the EtOAc extract of the bark of Meiogyne cylindrocarpa led to the isolation of two enyne- and five enediyne-gamma-lactones, sapranthins A-G (1-7), of which six were new. They were identified by mass spectrometry, extensive one- and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy and through comparison with data reported in the literature. BMS-777607 supplier Sapranthins B, C and E (2, 3 and 5, respectively) showed a weak cytotoxic activity on L1210 with IC50 values

comprised between 8.1 and 18.0 mu M. (C) 2011 Phytochemical Society of Europe. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Visceral leishmaniasis remains a serious public health problem in developing countries. Cytokines have a crucial role in the pathogenesis of this disease. We evaluated plasma levels of IL-10, IL-12 and IFN-gamma in 32 patients with active visceral lieshmaniasis, in 29 siblings of the patients and in 23 normal individuals in an endemic area to look for correlations between the clinical outcome of infection and the plasma cytokine levels. An analysis was made with a skin test and a quantitative sandwich enzyme immunoassay. Data were analyzed with the Mann Whitney test and the Kruskal Wallis test. The cytokine levels were significantly higher in the patients than in the control groups.

The Raman scattering spectra taken from different positions

The Raman scattering spectra taken from different positions

on the sample show similar spectral features, indicating that the GaN nucleation layers of 45 nm thick are homogeneous in micron scale.”
“Pleurotus eous is a pink edible oyster mushroom cultivated in Coimbatore. The aim of present study was to evaluate antioxidant potential of ethyl acetate, methanol, and hot water extracts from P. eous using various in vitro ROS/RNS generated chemical LOXO-101 and biological models. Results demonstrated that the graded-dose (2-50 mg/mL) of various extracts markedly scavenged the DPPH, ABTS, and hydroxyl radicals, and showed metal chelating ability, reducing capacity in Fe3+/ferricyanide complex, and ferric reducing antioxidant power assays. In biological models, different extracts were found to inhibit lipid peroxidation in brain and liver homogenate. Total antioxidant activity was high in methanolic extract. Hot water extract showed higher amount of total phenol and methanolic

extract showed higher amount of flavonoid as compared to other extracts. Based on EC50 values it can be concluded that the various extracts from P. eous were good in antioxidant properties with methanol Z-IETD-FMK Apoptosis inhibitor and ethyl acetate extracts being more effective. The results of this study showed that various extracts could serve as natural antioxidants owing to their significant antioxidant activity.”
“Nitrogen plasma was used

to amino-functionalize polystyrene surfaces, which were further modified via the selective introduction of polyamines suitable for the immobilization of biological compounds. This chemical modification was carried out using a multifunctional amine compound linked to glutaraldehyde, leading to the formation of hyperbranched structures at the surface. Up to three generations of branched polymers at the polystyrene (PS) surface were created by successive addition of the functional compounds. Amine functions introduced at the surface were labeled with 2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorobenzaldehyde beta-catenin mutation and analyzed by X-ray photo, (XPS), confirming the successful electron spectroscopy attachment of each generation of branching. Finally, bovine serum albumin and trypsin were immobilized on N-2-Plasma-treated PS modified with different amounts of branched graft polymer and found to remain bioactive after immobilization. (C) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 112: 2701-2709, 2009″
“In this work, we study two distinct electrical behaviors, which are often observed in Si nanocrystal memory gate stacks: the transient peak of the current-voltage characteristics and the frequency dependence of the admittance characteristics at strong accumulation. These effects are manifestations of a high electrical transparency tunnel oxide in conjunction with a good quality control oxide.

We performed proteomic profiling of human follicular fluids conta

We performed proteomic profiling of human follicular fluids containing oocytes that were fertilized and resulted in HDAC inhibitors in clinical trials pregnancy and follicular

fluids containing oocytes that were not fertilized in the same patients undergoing intracytoplasmic sperm injection using the LTQ Orbitrap coupled with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) analyses.

We identified a total of 503 proteins in human follicular fluids containing fertilized and non-fertilized oocytes obtained from 12 patients. We also found that 53 proteins exhibited significantly different spectral counts between the two groups, including heparan sulfate proteoglycan perlecan, which showed significant upregulation in

the follicular fluids containing fertilized oocytes in comparison with that observed in the follicular fluids containing non-fertilized oocytes.

Our results suggest a possibility that proteins identified by LC/MS/MS in follicular fluid might not only be involved in folliculogenesis, but also function as biomarkers possessing predictive potential for oocyte maturation and the success of IVF when their expression levels are significantly different between fertilized and non-fertilized oocytes, although no distinctive biomarkers were Selleckchem AZD1152 identified in the current study.”
“Objective: To determine the frequency and characteristics of bifid mandibular condyle (BMC) using computed tomography (CT) evaluation.

Study Design: A retrospective study was carried out using the CT records of 550 patients referred to the Medical School of Erciyes University (Kayseri, Turkey) between 2007 and 2010. T-tests were used to compare frequency of BMC between the left and right sides and between female and male patients. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS software and a chi-squared test.

Results: Of

the 550 Patients, 10 patients (1.82%) were found to have BMCs. Five patients were female (50%) and five were male (50%). Of these 10 patients, 7 (70%) had unilateral and 3 (30%) had bilateral BMCs. As a result, a total of 13 BMCs were found in 10 patients. No statistically significant differences were found between either the right-and left-sided BMCs or between female and male patients (p >.05).

Conclusions: To our knowledge, this is the first retrospective study investigating the prevalence and characteristics of BMC using computed tomography. Although BMC is an uncommon anomaly, it may be a more frequent condition in the Turkish population. Further studies and research on the orientation of duplicated condylar heads should be carried out.”
“Purpose of review

Recent data suggest that mineralocorticoid receptor activation can affect insulin resistance independent of its effects on blood pressure.

Computer simulations for quantitative analyses of the electron ho

Computer simulations for quantitative analyses of the electron hologram results with a modulated reference wave by a long-range electric field from the tribocharges are performed. Both the experimental results and the simulations indicate that the tribocharges are not localized at the positions where they are formed; rather they migrate to achieve

a gradient charge density in the specimen. The charge quantity of the model toner is also evaluated by the simulation. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3596757]“
“Dyschromatosis symmetrica hereditaria (DSH) is an autosomal dominant cutaneous disorder, characterized by a mixture of hyperpigmented and hypopigmented macules mostly on the dorsal portions of the extremities. Pathogenic mutations Fludarabine concentration have been identified in the double-stranded RNA-specific adenosine deaminase (DSRAD) gene. We studied a Chinese family that included four affected individuals with DSH phenotypes. PCR and direct sequencing were carried out to detect the entire Vorinostat mw coding region and exon-intron boundaries of the DSRAD gene. A novel nucleotide c. 3002G>T missense mutation in the exon 11 of the DSRAD gene was detected in the proband and his father. This information

expands the database on DSRAD gene mutations associated with DSH.”
“The in vivo activity of CA1 pyramidal neurons alternates between regular spiking and bursting, but how these changes affect information processing remains unclear. Using a detailed CA1 pyramidal neuron model, we investigate how timing and spatial arrangement variations in synaptic inputs to the distal and proximal dendritic layers influence the information content of model responses. We find that the temporal delay between activation of the two layers acts as a switch between excitability

modes: short delays induce bursting while long delays decrease firing. For long delays, the average firing frequency of the model response discriminates spatially clustered from diffused inputs to the distal dendritic tree. For short delays, the onset latency and inter-spike-interval succession of model responses can accurately classify input signals as temporally close or distant and spatially clustered or diffused across different stimulation protocols. These findings Torin 1 clinical trial suggest that a CA1 pyramidal neuron may be capable of encoding and transmitting presynaptic spatiotemporal information about the activity of the entorhinal cortex-hippocampal network to higher brain regions via the selective use of either a temporal or a rate code.”
“We investigated carrier dynamics of luminescence quenching in CdSe/ZnS core/shell quantum dots (QDs) in the absence and presence of gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) in aqueous solution. We emphasized that the observed quenching phenomenon in the QDs-Au NP composites can be a result of the interplay of the Forster resonance energy transfer and surface plasmon enhancement process of Au NPs on QDs.

Therefore, the antifungal activity

Therefore, the antifungal activity selleck compound of the CS salts was improved. (C) 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2010″
“Purpose of review

Major trauma is often associated with hemorrhage and transfusion of blood and blood products, which are all associated with adverse clinical outcome. The aim

of this review is to emphasize why bleeding and coagulation has to be monitored closely in trauma patients and to discuss the rationale behind modern and future transfusion strategies.

Recent findings

Hemorrhage is a major cause of early death after trauma. Apart from the initial injuries, hemorrhage is significantly promoted by coagulopathy. Early identification of the underlying cause of hemorrhage with coagulation tests (routine and bedside) in conjunction with blood gas analysis allow early goal-directed treatment of coagulation disorders and

anemia, thereby stopping bleeding and reducing transfusion requirements. These treatment options have to be adapted to the civilian and noncivilian sector. Transfusion 4-Hydroxytamoxifen clinical trial of blood and its components is critical in the management of trauma hemorrhage, but is per se associated with adverse outcome. Decisions must weigh the potential benefits and harms.


Future transfusion strategies are based on early and continuous assessment of the bleeding and coagulation status of trauma patients. This allows specific and goal-directed treatment, thereby optimizing the patient’s coagulation status early, minimizing the patient’s exposure to blood products, reducing costs and improving the patient’s outcome.”
“NPC 1161C is a novel antimalarial drug of interest because of its superior curative and prophylactic activity, and favorable toxicity profile against in vivo and in vitro models of malaria, pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, and leishmaniasis. The preformulation studies performed included determination of pK(a)s, aqueous and pH solubility, cosolvent solubility, log P, pH stability, Birinapant solubility dmso thermal analysis, and preliminary hygroscopicity studies. The mean pK(a1), pK(a2), and pK(a3) were determined

to be 10.12, 4.07, and 1.88, respectively. The aqueous solubility was found to be 2.4 x 10(-4) M having a saturated solution pH of 4.3-5.0 and a low intrinsic solubility of 1.6 x 10(-6) M. A mathematical model of the pH-solubility profile was derived from pH 2.2 to 8.0. An exponential decrease in solubility was observed with increasing pH. The excess solid phase in equilibrium with the solution in aqueous buffers was determined to be the free-base form of the drug. A significant increase in solubility was observed with all the cosolvents studied, in both unbuffered and buffered systems. Mean log P of the salt and the free base were estimated to be 2.18 and 3.70, respectively. The compound had poor stability at pH 7.0 at 37A degrees C, with a t (90) of 3.58 days.